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7/4/2010

Betnovate For Sale

Filed under: — K. M. Lawson @ 6:29 am Print

Betnovate For Sale, While there are many historical problems worthy of exploring in the study of history, I personably believe that one of the most important is an attempt to understand the process by which humans come to accept violence as legitimate. History has no monopoly on this, Is Betnovate safe, it is a deeply interdisciplinary issue. A second related, and equally interdisciplinary issue is to better understand the many different reasons why someone comes to accept some or all of the claims made by the institutions of power, Betnovate brand name. This too, Australia, uk, us, usa, as a question of trust, is ultimately tied to legitimacy.

Like most movements aspiring to power, Betnovate for sale, the Communist Party of China was also deeply interested in these questions, Betnovate without a prescription, especially, of course, the latter, taking Betnovate. In looking through internal reports of the Treason Elimination Department (锄奸部) in Shandong from the 1930s and 1940s, I am fascinated by their emphasis on measuring and reporting not merely the elimination of the treason in question, but in the response to that elimination by the people, Betnovate For Sale. How did the masses respond. Betnovate maximum dosage, How many people were "mobilized" (发动) by public trial x or execution y.

I recently came across yet another source which has helped me think about, and continue to be puzzled about the two issues I opened with, Betnovate photos.

Last week I read the memoir of Sam Ginsbourg, Buy Betnovate online cod, a Russian Jew born in Siberia, but raised in Harbin, Vladivostok, what is Betnovate, and Shanghai. Betnovate For Sale, I'm mostly interested in Ginsbourg as a source of background information on his older brother Mark Gayn (Mark changed his name after moving to the United States), one of the most important journalists and first hand sources reporting on the complex political events of occupation Japan and Korea in the early aftermath of World War II. Betnovate duration, Though I may post more on Mark some other time, Sam is also a very interesting figure. In 1947, where can i order Betnovate without prescription, as the Chinese Civil war was heating up, Betnovate from canadian pharmacy, he travelled from Shanghai to Communist occupied Yantai (Chefoo), in Shandong province. He became a passionate supporter of Communism and a Chinese citizen in 1953, Betnovate from canada. Ginsbourg took up a career in Shandong as a professor of Russian language and, Purchase Betnovate online no prescription, whenever his card was up in political movements, as a bourgeois intellectual or Russian spy.

At least half of his memoir My First Sixty Years in China, published in 1982, deals with the long history of Communist political movements he experienced, Betnovate For Sale. In most cases, no prescription Betnovate online, and especially during the Cultural Revolution, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Ginsbourg found himself among the targets for attack. His own suffering and the ridiculousness of the accusations made against him and some of those close to him are described, albeit in a somewhat muted tone, Betnovate price. Although I only skimmed through some of his encounters, Betnovate class, it appears that he didn't fare too badly. He wasn't killed, and he doesn't seem to have been severely beaten or subjected to long periods in labor camps, Betnovate overnight. Betnovate For Sale, "On the whole," he says, "the movements were a necessary political and ideological foundation for rapid economic growth." (( Sam Ginsbourg, My First Sixty Years in China (Beijing: Foreign Language Press Beijing, 1982), 247. ))

His closing chapter is set up as a response to a visiting American academic who tries to get him to express regret for having moved to the liberated areas in 1947 and stayed through the tumultuous decades that followed. Betnovate used for, I am not too surprised to see him defend his home, his friends, and his entire way of life in those pages, canada, mexico, india, rejecting the outsider's arrogance and looking forward with great optimism at the future. Betnovate interactions, All that was missing were the cute baby chickens shown in final scene of the movie To Live (活着).

More jarring however, was Ginsbourg's display of that characteristic disconnect between what Ginsbourg himself experienced, where can i buy cheapest Betnovate online, and acts of violence he witnessed against those he did not know personally. Whereas he knows he was not himself a Russian spy, and that the President of Shandong University was probably not guilty of the many reactionary crimes he was accused of when he was purged, he doesn't seem able to extend the same sort of skepticism to many other cases, Betnovate For Sale. Effects of Betnovate, We see this when he describes a realization he has as he watched, in 1950, two "reactionaries" being delivered to the execution ground.

I reflected with satisfaction how far I had come since the autumn of 1947, where can i find Betnovate online, when I had felt shock at the sight of a woman landlord being dragged to execution. Betnovate no rx, Not an iota of pity or perturbation stirred me in 1950. I felt nothing but hatred for the two who were in the truck." (( Ibid., 209, buy Betnovate from canada. ))
Later at Qingdao stadium (From Brazzaville to Kabul, Betnovate description, from Pyongyang to Kigali, stadiums serve well for executions when you want to maximize impact) with, he claims, Betnovate street price, 50, Where can i buy Betnovate online, 000 in attendance, he watched the trial of two "ringleaders" of a secret religious society.
The woman - the abbess of a monastery - had caused the death of several 'believers', cheating hundreds of others of large sums of money and committed other crimes, Betnovate over the counter. Betnovate For Sale, The old man had raped sixty nuns of his nunnery, some of whom had died.

After the trial the two of them were led, Buy cheap Betnovate, or rather dragged, around the track of the stadium for everybody to see. As they rounded the huge arena, cheap Betnovate no rx, a roar of shouts followed them until they were hauled onto trucks and driven off. Betnovate pics, The movement taught me and, I believe, others - who like myself had been born and had grown up in towns, real brand Betnovate online, especially those coming from well-to-do families - how horrible were the crimes that had been committed and were still being committed against the common people, Online Betnovate without a prescription, how deep was the popular hatred toward the evildoers and how just the deserts. It was the best, the most practical, buy generic Betnovate, the most effective kind of education; and I have always thought myself lucky to have gone through it. (( Ibid., 210, Betnovate For Sale. Betnovate dose, ))

Is it possible the two "ringleaders" were in fact murderers and rapists. It is certainly possible. For example, is Betnovate addictive, my own reading of reports from the period suggests that the Party often capitalized on the huge anger felt by local villagers against an infamous bandit or local puppet military commander. Punishing real evildoers is not just good justice, it is good politics. And yet it is just as possible that, like so many thousands of victims of the campaigns against religious organizations and secret societies in the late 1940s and early 1950s, these two leaders of religious societies had committed only the crime of leading an organization targeted by the party for complete liquidation or full co-optation. Accusing the leaders of outlandish and horrific crimes is the fastest way to demoralize and discredit such an organization, setting into motion a wave of self-criticisms and struggle sessions for other members who might then emerge cleansed of their crime of association - at least until the next movement needed a target.

Writing his memoir towards the end of his long life in China, Sam Ginsbourg wrote about that encounter and his realization at that moment without adding a word of doubt or reflection from the perspective of someone who had been a far more fortunate victim of criminal accusations. It seems that, indeed, it was a most effective kind of education.

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12/9/2008

Sino-Soviet Nuclear Collaboration Revisionism?

In a review of Thomas C. Reed, and Danny B. Stillman's new book, The Nuclear Express: A Political History of the Bomb and its Proliferation, William Broad writes that
Moscow freely shared its atomic thefts with Mao Zedong, China’s leader. The book says that Klaus Fuchs, a Soviet spy in the Manhattan Project who was eventually caught and, in 1959, released from jail, did likewise. Upon gaining his freedom, the authors say, Fuchs gave the mastermind of Mao’s weapons program a detailed tutorial on the Nagasaki bomb. A half-decade later, China surprised the world with its first blast.
This doesn't jibe with what I remember about the relationship at all. Perhaps I'm overreacting to the word "freely," but there was considerable resistance on the Soviet side to full cooperation with the development of Chinese atomic bomb and missile technology. (( See, for example, Sergei Goncharenko, "Sino-Soviet Military Cooperation,", Brothers in Arms: the Rise and Fall of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1963, ed. Odd Arne Westad, Stanford University Press, 1998, pp. 141-164. )) In most accounts that I've read, that foot-dragging was a significant element in the ultimate break between the two powers, and the Chinese had to work from the bits and pieces the Soviets gave them (( See, for example, Ji Qiang, "The scientists making the atomic bombs" [PDF], pp. 130-132, which describes Soviet help in the 1950s but that aid quietly disappears from the narrative around '59. )) combined with knowledge gleaned by Chinese who studied in the US and France. This doesn't seriously call into question the basic thesis of the book, which is that nuclear weapons technology spreads by diffusion -- usually with some element of theft, subversion or treason (( This isn't a new idea; I've been telling my students for years that the United States is the only nation to have actually invented the atomic bomb. But their level of detail and access to new sources sounds pretty substantial. )) -- and that China has been a major proliferator in the post-Mao era. (( The French are the other major nexus, having aided the Chinese and provided the Israelis with most of their technology, and Israel has gone on to share it with others, most notably South Africa. )) Reed and Stillman assert that
China in 1982 made a policy decision to flood the developing world with atomic know-how. Its identified clients include Algeria, Pakistan and North Korea. Alarmingly, the authors say one of China’s bombs was created as an “export design” that nearly “anybody could build.” The blueprint for the simple plan has traveled from Pakistan to Libya and, the authors say, Iran.
That puts China square in the middle of one of the most important and troubling trends of the last quarter-century.

3/6/2006

Asian History Carnival #3

Welcome to the third Asian History Carnival! It's traditional for blog carnivals to have some kind of internal organization.... Heh. Media and Popular Culture We've got a particularly high profile today, because an Asian History Film just won three Oscars, though being the awards for Art Direction, Cinematography, and Costume, we might as well still be laboring in obscurity. Memoirs of a Geisha was long on style, but Emma in Sydney sums up the movie in verse and suggests why the movie won no awards for content. I still haven't seen a review of the film by an historian, and I'm not volunteering. Speaking of movies, J. Otto Pohl (who seems to have finished up his Human Cost of Communism series for now) got the coveted call from Hollywood: Historical Consultant! Perhaps there'll be more work for historical consultants now that China's outlawing historical liberties in film? Well, judging by Sam Crane's analysis of historical writing in China, only historical materialists need apply, in that case. In the days of the US Occupation of Japan, as Konrad Lawson relates, media outlets had to be careful particularly if they were going to persist with nationalistic tropes. segue -- Japanese Nationalism Japanese, on the other hand, are taking more liberties than they used to: Japanese historical movies seem to be getting more nationalistic, or at least more sympathetic to militarists. Japan and Korea: Identity and Legality How hard is it to determine identity and nationality? Well, it seems like a pretty cut-and-dry category most of the time, but check out the story of this Korean-German (or Japanese-Dutch) playwright in the US who gets investigated as Japanese during WWII The comments are very interesting, too, as people try to work out how to tell who's what with regard to Annexation-era documents. Much clearer, but also a fantastic source for classroom discussion, here's a link to an archive of photographs [slow loading, but worth it!] by Korean art photographer Jeong Hae-chang taken in the 1930s. In spite of the elegance of the images, it's not like the Japanese occupation was friendly or gentle. One Korean scholar killed himself on the eve of Annexation in 1910, leaving behind a powerful statement in poetry and prose. Less than ten years later the Koreans rose up only to have their activists killed and aspirations crushed. Another "identity issue" which rambles on forever, it seems, is the Dokdo/Takeshima dispute. The Flying Yangban has a very detailed analysis of the controversy in three parts: Japan's claims, Korea's claims, and post-WWII agreements; there's a fourth post coming, he says, focusing on the post-1951 legal situation. The best comment was from Bunklehatch on the "Cyprus Solution": divide the island in half, and presumably split the difference on economic zones, too. Practical, but thoroughly unacceptable, it seems. segue -- Korean Nationalism There are dividing lines that run through Korea still, and not just the DMZ. Owen Miller discussed some of the current debates about Korean history, the strain of nationalism and ideology that runs through them and the ongoing struggle to define the issues. Historiography: How We Write In response to Duara's argument about Manchukuo's modernity, I proposed a new umbrella term for studies of Imperialism, colonialism and post-colonialism: Colonialogy (also here), trying to tie together the many strains of critical and ideological writing on these issues. The particular tension here is over the question of whether colonial control could be developmentally positive, and Owen Miller again took up the Korean side of the issue, with his usual vigor and intelligence. Konrad Lawson took up the question of whether we -- anglophone historians, mostly -- are sufficiently engaged with Asian language scholarship, by way of an article -- which Konrad did not endorse -- arguing that non-natives can't have the intuitive understanding of natives.... Alan Baumler responds to a discussion of whether the rest of us are sufficiently engaged with military history via Mary Elizabeth Berry's AAS Presidential address The anthropologists have made deep inroads into the question of perspective and engagement: Kerim comments on a Japan Focus article by Scott Simon about Taiwanese aboriginal histories of Japanese occupation, raising all sorts of issues about the perspective from which we write and the sources we use. Segue -- Debunking The Gavin Menzies "Did Zheng He discover America" controversy erupted anew with the release of a purported 1418 map. Nobody here was buying it, and if you follow some of the links in the comments you'll find really good reasons why. When Truth Matters: Pride The debate over the origins of Indian culture and the Indian people took an interesting twist with recent DNA studies, and this post also contains an interesting meditation on the difference between a "theory" and a plausible story. Sometimes the stories aren't so plausible: Did you know that Chinese -- at least Altays -- invented Skiing? Also golf. Because nobody likes to be forgotten, Sheilax has been blogging the history of the Malays of Tumasik and their rise to power When Truth Matters: War and Guilt Penal history is an interesting field, as Frank Dikötter makes clear when he introduces the IIAS issue featuring articles on the history of prisons in Burma, India, and Hokkaido, Japan HK Dave has some thoughts on the French expedition to Beijing against the Boxer seige: a farce he calls it, and points out that missionary activity was a critical issue in the uprising. In the ever-popular WWII field, Curzon relates the recollections of a Tokyo Catholic woman about the Firebombing of Tokyo and Scott Evensen (aka Plunge), outlines a brief in favor of the atomic bombings. After that, the war was over, right? Not quite, as Operation August Storm, the Soviet entry into Manchuria lasted well after surrender and added another list of atrocities to an already long ledger of pain. Japan's wartime history is still being litigated, particularly with regard to forced labor from China and Korea. Hcpen contrasts German and Japanese post-war actions and concludes that the apology issue isn't over. Iraq's history is on trial as well: A roundup of links and stories related to the 148 deaths for which Saddam Hussein is currently on trial (disturbing images). Most people who don't study Korea don't realize that there was a Korean guerilla War, 1966-69, sparked by North Korean incursions. The South Korean response was aborted, resulting in a recently recounted atrocity of South Korea against its own soldiers. Segue - War, Memory and Religion Davesgonechina found A civil dialogue on Yasukuni. It's extremely long, detailed and ought to be fodder for someone's senior thesis. Religion and Culture Curzon describes some of Japan's more martial Buddhist figures, and speculates about their connection to samurai culture. Remco Breuker describes a Korean insect extermination ritual and discourses on rituals, science and naturalism. Alan Baumler tries to contextualize male tears. Put all this together and you've got more questions than answers, but it's great fun! Things change: The last Jewish synagogue in Tashkent to be destroyed. Things persist: Alexandra Moss, visited a traditional paper-making operation: neat pictures, too! Sometimes the Old can be New again: A Hindu temple in Singapore is attracting Buddhists and Daoists and Confucianism is on the rise. segue: Blogging for Education Morgan Pitelka of Occidental College has his whole Premodern Japan seminar blogging. It's an interesting mix of recent scholarship on Japan with methodological material about museums and physical culture. Pitelka's got a ringer in the class, Tim Anderson, who's doubling as a Museum liason and who posts incredibly useful stuff like this discussion of Yoshitoshi prints and these tips for writing about museum exhibits. The rest of the class seems to be mostly posting reading summaries, which are quite good. In an e-mail to me, he said that he's not sure what's to become of the blog after the semester's done: Count me as one vote for keeping it up, or converting it to some more organized archival form. Blogging to Win: Politics and Historical Analogies Katie McKy's column isn't technically blogging, but her analogy between Bush and Hirohito is so blogworthy that I'm surprised I haven't seen bloggers take it up. I'm not sure that the analogy is terribly apt -- there are other monarchies besides Japan's in the world -- but given my own analogy between Iraq and Manchuria, I'm not discounting it out of hand, with the usual caveats about historical analogies. Though you wouldn't know it in the Chinese press, the 1989 Tiananmen massacre continues to have implications in Chinese politics, and the example of Tiananmen 1989 seems surprisingly relevant to recent Philipine politics. Going back further, Mao's birthday inspired ESWN to translate an article about Mao nostalgia, an attitude he doesn't share (there are links there for anti-Mao commentaries, as well). Sepia Mutiny tracked South Asian references in State of the Unions back to Truman and discovered that it only comes up when there's trouble. Speaking of trouble, Ian Lamont is analyzing Chinese news reports and finds that Vietnam only gets mentioned when it's a problem for the Chinese. The End: Food and Clothing Now, I take food history pretty seriously, so I don't want anyone thinking that this is the "comic relief" at the end. That said, it's hard not to wonder whether to laugh at the Japanese bakudandon, or Bomb Bowl Lunch, that Alan Christy came across. People are creative, adaptable and eager to consume! India Pale Ale was a response to the problem of shipping beer, and hcpen is "really passionate about the Chinese dress called the QiPao or Cheongsam." And that's the lot! Many thanks to those who sent submissions, suggestions and who helped publicize the call for posts including, but not limited to: Simon World, Roy Berman, Adam Richards, Sharon Howard, Ralph Luker, Abigail Schweber, Sam Crane, Morgan Pitelka, and especially Konrad Lawson. All errors of fact, spelling, interpretation or tone are entirely my fault. Unless they're not..... The next AHC should be in two months: the position of host is open for now, but speak up soon, or you'll miss it and have to wait! Until then, you can still submit articles to the Blog Carnival folks and we'll make sure they get to the right person. Until then, there's a bunch of great carnivals coming up next week: the ancient/medieval Carnivalesque, the Carnival of Bad History and the grand old flagship History Carnival at History:Other

6/27/2005

ASPAC Notes: Demographics and States

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 6:32 am Print
Historian of Empires Niall Ferguson [via Ralph Luker] recently wrote:
Since 1989, the Russian mortality rate has risen from below 11 per 1,000 to more than 15 per 1,000 - nearly double the American rate. For adult males, the mortality rate is three times higher. Average male life expectancy at birth is below 60, roughly the same as in Bangladesh. A 20-year-old Russian man has a less than 50/50 chance of reaching the age of 65. ... Exacerbating the demographic effects of increased mortality has been a steep decline in the fertility rate, from 2.19 births per woman in the mid-1980s to a nadir of 1.17 in 1999. Because of these trends, the United Nations projects that Russia's population will decline from 146 million in 2000 to 101 million in 2050. By that time the population of Egypt will be larger.
This echoes what Kyle Hatcher told us in his ASPAC paper (panel 1) on Chinese migrants to the Russian Far East (RFE). Like so many nations with declining populations (and the RFE is declining faster, I suspect, than the rest of Russia), immigration could be a key component of economic and social revitalization. But Russia, like so many of the nations struggling with this issue, is unaccustomed to integrating immigrants. Mr. Hatcher's work involved surveying Russians about their attitudes towards Chinese immigrants, and what he found is not good news. Russian attitudes towards Chinese immigrants are terrible. They are viewed as untrustworthy, insular and territorially aggressive. They are considered a drain on the economy, taking jobs away from locals and putting very little back into local businesses. Russian immigration laws have been steadily tightening over the last few years, making casual labor migration across the border more difficult (and likely expanding illegal migration). This is fueled in large part, Hatcher found, by a vicious and shameless press, which plays up stories of Chinese crimes, overestimates the numbers of legal and illegal Chinese immigrants, and regularly cites anti-Chinese nationalistic scholars and politicians. In fact, Chinese work at jobs in the RFE that Russians won't do, even tough unemployment among ethnic Russians is very high. And Chinese buy most of their goods from Russian-owned businesses who make no effort to cater specifically to Chinese tastes. China has shown little interest in the RFE territory, and even if it had, the numbers of immigrants (at best guess) is well below the levels at which rational observers would consider it a threat of separtism, etc. Chinese immigration offers the RFE's primary extraction industries (logging, fishing, furs, mining) and decaying mercantile economy their best chance of revitalization, but Chinese are not welcome. For obvious economic reasons, many Chinese have gone to the RFE (the numbers are in the tens of thousands, at least), but legal and social restrictions make it impossible for the numbers to be large enough to make up Russia's demographic and economic and institutional weaknesses. The starkly different social and economic conditions on either side of the Russia-China border call the concept of this as a "region" into question; I've never entirely bought the argument that Russia was an "Asian Power" just because it had some Pacific Rim beachfront. Interestingly, Chinese labor in the RFE had a "heyday" in the early 20th century, but was pushed out by increasingly nationalistic positions, culminating in the almost total removal of Chinese from the RFE at the time of the Sino-Soviet split in the late '50s. Needless to say, Russia's post-Soviet collapse is of great concern to China (and, as Niall Ferguson points out in the essay cited above, the Chinese model of economic development without political liberalization is very intriguing, if unreachable, to many Russians) and the continuing decline and instability of the northern Pacific region has to be counted as a problem that will have to be addressed at some point in the future.

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