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6/30/2013

Buy Vibramycin Without Prescription

Filed under: — C. W. Hayford @ 1:40 pm

Buy Vibramycin Without Prescription, Vladimir Putin is on a roll. He has been having a fine time poking the US in the eye over the Edward Snowden kerfuffle, real brand Vibramycin online, Cheap Vibramycin,   but at a news conference he declined to comment: "In any case, I'd rather not deal with such questions, Vibramycin pics, Canada, mexico, india, because anyway it's like shearing a pig – lots of screams but little wool."

That reminded me that it's been too long since we talked about pigs. Just because we’re Frog in a Well doesn’t mean that we can only talk about frogs – in fact, my Vibramycin experience, Where can i buy Vibramycin online, pigs are our, well.., online buying Vibramycin. Where can i buy cheapest Vibramycin online, bread and butter. I will modestly call attention to my piece, buy cheap Vibramycin, Vibramycin no rx, "Pigs, Shit, herbal Vibramycin, Vibramycin pharmacy, and Chinese History, or, purchase Vibramycin online no prescription, Vibramycin pics, Happy Year of the Pig!" Frog In a Well  (January 27 2007). You can find several more by clicking the "Pigs" link on the right hand column of this page, Buy Vibramycin Without Prescription.

Putin seems to be using one of the many, online buying Vibramycin hcl, Vibramycin used for, many colorful pig sayings. My father, online buying Vibramycin, Vibramycin mg, who grew up on a farm, had a bunch of them, order Vibramycin online overnight delivery no prescription, Vibramycin no prescription, mostly unprintable. Wikipedia is good at accumulating this sort of thing, Vibramycin gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Where can i find Vibramycin online, A succession of people edited the article “Lipstick on a Pig,"  which gives examples of usage going back decades, online buy Vibramycin without a prescription, Discount Vibramycin, but the Wikipedia article  “Pig in a Poke” is even better. Buy Vibramycin Without Prescription, Many languages have a rough equivalent. It turns out that in  Latvia you say “Buy a cat in a sack.” Who knew, Vibramycin price. Vibramycin overnight, Wikipedia “Pigs in Popular Culture” has an extensive section of pig-related idioms.

Right, where can i order Vibramycin without prescription. Vibramycin wiki, But what about China.

Wikipedia has many faults, Buy Vibramycin Without Prescription. It is a great grab bag, Vibramycin from mexico, Vibramycin alternatives, not an encyclopedia. But, Vibramycin class, Buying Vibramycin online over the counter, as the computer software people like to say, "that's not a bug, Vibramycin street price, Doses Vibramycin work, it's a feature." China and pigs is a good example. If you want to have some idiotic fun, purchase Vibramycin online no prescription, Herbal Vibramycin, go to Wikipedia, any page, buy Vibramycin from mexico, Vibramycin dose, and in the upper right hand corner you will find a "Search" box. Enter "~Pigs + China" (without the quotation marks), purchase Vibramycin for sale. Buy Vibramycin Without Prescription, The tilde (~) means that you don't want articles with this word in the title, but all  Wikipedia pages with the following words in it. Vibramycin for sale, Amazing. I got 7,259 hits. Of course, this includes duplicates, off the wall irrelevances, rock songs, and pig iron, but also a fascinating variety of things you would not have thought to look up: "Coprophagia", "Dutch Pacification Campaign on Formosa," as well as straightforward finds such as "Science and technology of the Song Dynasty."And that's less than a dozen of the hits, leaving more than 7,000 to go.

This search, random though it may be, is a dramatic way to see the central role that pigs played in Chinese history.

And oh, young people today just don't know the classics -- the Muppets' "Pigs in Space." Vladimir Putin's soft power sneers can't compare. YouTube has tons of them: Pigs in Space at YouTube.

 

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2/23/2012

Buy Aldactone Without Prescription

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 5:30 pm

I recently got Understanding China Through Comics which is Liu Jing's cartoon history of China Buy Aldactone Without Prescription, . The first volume goes to the end of the Han, What is Aldactone, then the next two will take the story up to 1911, 1911 being apparently the year History Stopped in China. Is it any good, Aldactone gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Sort of. Aldactone natural, Is it an interesting project. Yes, Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. My natural comparison for this book is the first bit of Larry Gonick's A Cartoon History of the Universe. This is not very fair, Aldactone trusted pharmacy reviews, since it is possible to not be Jimi Hendrix and still be a pretty good guitarist. Aldactone brand name, One difference is the Gonick is just a better artist. Compare these two panels on the Fall of Ur and the Fall of Wang Mang.


Buy Aldactone Without Prescription, Gonick obviously draws better, the panel is laid out better, and it is much more dramatic. I particularly like the guy at the bottom who is apparently about to shoot the lamenter, Aldactone duration. Gonick does action well. Buy generic Aldactone, Both of them include little primary source quotations, like the lament for Ur above and this from Confucius's Great Learning ((did you know that Confucius wrote the Great Learning. Gonick seems to have done better research))

I assume that in both cases they are using the quotes to get a more direct connection to the sources and because they are just cool, Aldactone use, but they also connect to the purposes of the two projects. Liu's purpose is to write a book for people like his son, who need to understand Chinese history, which is a 5,000 year quest to create a xiaokang or middle class society, Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. Where can i order Aldactone without prescription, ((He does not say so, but here he is citing the ancient philosopher Deng Xiaoping)) Gonick's purpose is to tell a bunch of interesting and important stories, but if they don't add up to a coherent narrative that's o.k, Aldactone images. So we have one pretty nationalist book and one more liberal-artsy one. Aldactone wiki, The Great Learning is there because it is important.  The Lament for Ur is there just because it is great.

You can see their different goals in what they choose to talk about. Buy Aldactone Without Prescription, Gonick is quite happy to mix myth with history, since legends and stories fit in fine with what he is trying to do. He can do this by inserting his narrative voice (he likes to talk about his sources)

Or he can do it graphically

Liu skips rapidly from the culture heroes Fu Xi and Nu Wa to the 'more historical' Yellow Emperor and keeps pretty tightly to a standard historical development timeline, Aldactone pictures. He has things to get through, Buy Aldactone no prescription, and he is going to get through them.

This is quite a nice panel. It would be hard to sum up Confucianism, australia, uk, us, usa, Daoism and Legalism in this few words any better. Of course one could spend more words on classical philosophy, but Liu is in a hurry to get on to building the empire, so he is not going to follow Zhuangzi around the way Gonick follows Socrates around, although some have done that, Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. Low dose Aldactone, Liu is not going to give us the story of Sima Xiangru or Jing Ke, because whatever they can tell us about Chinese culture they don't tell us much about the growth of the Chinese state and Chinese power. Gonick has similar problems in the later volumes of his history, Aldactone steet value, where he gets trapped into more of a World-History textbook story of development. Online Aldactone without a prescription, ((This is not fair to Gonick, and to continue the musical metaphor from above, it's like saying that the Violent Femmes never did anything as good as their first album, canada, mexico, india. Even at his weakest, Online buying Aldactone, however, I don't recall Gonick becoming as non-graphical as this, from Liu. )) Both authors try to humanize their subjects, my Aldactone experience, which is easier for Gonick. Buy Aldactone Without Prescription, Since he is more interested in things like technological change he can include more commoners to help him show the march of progress. Kjøpe Aldactone på nett, köpa Aldactone online,

Both of them are sort of stuck with the fact that most of the sources for the early period deal with elites, and thus much of what they say about the personal lives of these people centers on sex and violence. Violence is easier for Gonick, herbal Aldactone, who is not writing for kids. Order Aldactone online c.o.d, Thus we get the death of Joab,which Liu matches with the castration of Sima Qian

They also both use humor. Some of Liu's humor is, purchase Aldactone online, I think, Aldactone from canada, inadvertent and connected to translations problems.It actually does make sense to refer to Cai Lun, the inventor of paper, as having been an "entry-level eunuch" at one point but I find the phrase hilarious, real brand Aldactone online. Gonick has more room for humor, since he is free to stuff in anything he wants from word origin stories with cute picturesto pigs

Why use a full page on this, Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. Because seasick pigs are funny, Aldactone recreational, and even if they don't push the narrative forward they are worth putting in.

Liu gives us this little guy, the perfect toady and informer, buying Aldactone online over the counter.

He's worth a grin all by himself, Buy Aldactone without prescription, but he's only here as part of a full page denouncing the foolishness of trying to get the rich to pay taxes. (( Liu Jing is a successful businessman in China today ))

While this may be at attempt to draw historical lessons for use in contemporary society, Liu will also include things that have nothing at all to do with the present, buy cheap Aldactone. Here he gives us the student protests Buy Aldactone Without Prescription, of 169 A.D. ((Gonick is also willing to draw lots of contemporary lessons, Aldactone pharmacy, which is especially evident in his feminism.))

And their suppression

In general though, things like student protest that have nothing at all to do with contemporary China get short shrift from Liu. I teach a class the covers much the same period as his book, purchase Aldactone online no prescription, and I spend a lot more time on the age of philosophers and much less on the rise of state power in the Han, Order Aldactone from mexican pharmacy, presumably because I am more interested in the development of Chinese culture than in finding the roots of Chinese power. Liu is also much more concerned with comparisons that make China look more advanced than the West

or at least draw parallels.

So while I may not be wildly impressed with Liu, taking Aldactone, I am looking forward to the next volumes, Aldactone dangers, since a chapter with a title like  "Jesus is my bro: Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace Rebellion" is something you just have to look at.

Maybe the problem is not one of the author's skills or intentions, but just that the medium of comics is better suited to the “Overview of Classical Civilization” approach than the “Graphical Textbook” approach, Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. Or maybe historians just need to start writing history differently.

Why am I going on about this, Aldactone alternatives. It's not as much a desire to beat up on Liu Jing or praise Larry Gonick as a desire to think more about presenting history graphically. Rx free Aldactone, This is something I have been working on for a long time Almost all of my undergraduate courses were just words in the air and on the chalkboard, with maybe one slide lecture a semester. Buy Aldactone Without Prescription, In grad school I ran into a professor who regularly put black and white transparencies up on an overhead, and this was a habit I carried over to my own teaching. So I spent a lot of time looking for pictures that would work in black and white and would actually say something beyond “This is what Liang Qichao's head looked like.” Powerpoint of course made pictures easier, Aldactone no rx, and now I use a lot of images. Get Aldactone, Unlike Gonick and Liu, I don't draw my own, so I am stuck with what I can find, order Aldactone no prescription. (( Also, I don’t do bullet points, just an outline followed by lots of pictures and maybe some quotes.))

I sometimes think about how the availability of 'found' images affects my teaching. I have found some nice ones. If you want to imply that Chiang Kai-shek was a neo-fascist dictator this works well

If you want to hint at the insanity of thinking that Chairman Mao Thought could make crops grow in a desert, this one works well

There are lots of horrors of war pictures, but as I only show them to students for a few seconds and I am not going to post them here, Buy Aldactone Without Prescription. ((These dead people may have been gone for a long time, but I feel dirty if I use their suffering to entertain my students' baser urges longer than I have to.)) On the other hand, there are lots of things I would like to say that I have not found good pictures for. Sometimes you can make graphs or whatever, but you end up with parts you can do well visually and parts you can't. If even Larry Gonick struggles to integrate words and text what hope do the rest of us have. ((I am leaving out the level of technology and skill in using it, of course.))

 

 

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10/10/2008

A Blog Post Upon Roast Pig

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 11:04 pm
I was reading a discussion of progressive economics at Progressive Historians and was stopped dead in my tracks by a quote from Henry George
There is a delusion resulting from the tendency to confound the accidental with the essential—a delusion which the law writers have done their best to extend, and political economists generally have acquiesced in, rather than endeavored to expose—that private property in land is necessary to the proper use of land, and that to make land common property would be to destroy civilization and revert to barbarism. This delusion may be likened to the idea which, according to Charles Lamb, so long prevailed among the Chinese after the savor of roast pork had been accidentally discovered by the burning down of Ho-ti’s hut—that to cook a pig it was necessary to set fire to a house.
I love the analogy, but the reference to it being a long-standing Chinese belief seemed absurd, the kind of offhand "aren't these exotic people a useful way to demonstrate irrationality" storytelling which was so popular at one time. It wasn't too hard to find the original essay by Charles Lamb, a critical figure in English letters who I'm fairly sure I've never heard of: "A Dissertation Upon Roast Pork." The essay begins
MANKIND, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend M. was obliging enough to read and explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw, clawing or biting it from the living animal, just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. This period is not obscurely hinted at by their great Confucius in the second chapter of his Mundane Mutations, where he designates a kind of golden age by the term Cho-fang, literally the Cooks' holiday. The manuscript goes on to say, that the art of roasting, or rather broiling (which I take to be the elder brother) was accidentally discovered in the manner following.
He then goes on to tell the story of the "swine-herd Ho-ti" whose "lubberly" son Bo-Bo burns down the shed and then accidentally tastes the crackling skin. Then his father returns
The truth at length broke into his slow understanding, that it was the pig that smelt so, and the pig that tasted so delicious; and, surrendering himself up to the new-born pleasure, he fell to tearing up whole handfuls of the scorched skin with the flesh next it, and was cramming it down his throat in his beastly fashion, when his sire entered amid the smoking rafters, armed with retributory cudgel, and finding how affairs stood, began to rain blows upon the young rogue's shoulders, as thick as hail-stones, which Bo-bo heeded not any more than if they had been flies. The tickling pleasure, which he experienced in his lower regions, had rendered him quite callous to any inconveniences he might feel in those remote quarters. (( The "tickling pleasure, which he experienced in his lower regions" is, I think, a happy stomach. ))
His father is eventually converted, but they are loathe to share their secret, for fear of being thought "a couple of abominable wretches." "Nevertheless, strange stories got about. It was observed that Ho-ti's cottage was burnt down now more frequently than ever." Eventually they are discovered, brought to trial, but the jury and judge are all converted to this new pleasure. I actually spent some time reading through the early parts of the Classic of History looking to see if there was, in fact, anything remotely resembling this. The conclusion of the story is so clearly non-Chinese, though, that I didn't spend a lot of time on it:
The judge, who was a shrewd fellow, winked at the manifest iniquity of the decision: and, when the court was dismissed, went privily, and bought up all the pigs that could be had for love or money. In a few days his Lordship's town house was observed to be on fire. The thing took wing, and now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. Fuel and pigs grew enormously dear all over the district. The insurance offices one and all shut up shop. People built slighter and slighter every day, until it was feared that the very science of architecture would in no long time be lost to the world. Thus this custom of firing houses continued, till in process of time, says my manuscript, a sage arose, like our Locke, who made a discovery, that the flesh of swine, or indeed of any other animal, might be cooked (burnt, as they called it) without the necessity of consuming a whole house to dress it. Then first began the rude form of a gridiron. Roasting by the string, or spit, came in a century or two later, I forget in whose dynasty. By such slow degrees, concludes the manuscript, do the most useful, and seemingly the most obvious arts, make their way among man-kind.
I'm not going to waste my time or yours by actually listing the anachronisms and absurdities of this. Although I'm certainly open to evidence to the contrary, I'm going to conclude that Lamb fabricated the anecdote, fairly secure in the knowledge that his audience was familiar only with the general tone of Chinese traditions. He then goes on to discuss his own preferences in pork products, including a deep distaste for onions as flavoring, and to reminisce about a spice cake. From such beginnings arose our tradition of essay-writing. I should go easier on my students when they make stuff up, pass on urban legends and hoary zombie errors, go off on tangents and pass off their personal preferences as some kind of learned judgement; they're just walking in the footsteps of their literary forefathers.

7/2/2008

Pigs Again: Li Shizhen’s Ming Dynasty Map

Filed under: — C. W. Hayford @ 1:45 pm
pigming-3.jpg After my posting last year of "Pigs. Shit, and Chinese History," Sigrid Schmalzer was kind enough to share this map which she drew based on the works of the Ming dynasty scholar Li Shizhen (李時珍; 1518-1593) mostly widely known for his Bencao Gangmu (本草綱目). It looks to me as if Li was as much concerned with how the meat would taste as with other qualities!

1/28/2007

Pigs, Shit, and Chinese History, Or Happy Year of the Pig

Filed under: — C. W. Hayford @ 12:55 am

The intriguing pig map in Alan Baumler’s post, “Pigs” (January 11) reminds us that 2007 is the Year of the Pig. Wikipedia informs us that a person born in the year of the Pig (or Boar) is “usually an honest, straightforward and patient person,” someone who is a “modest, shy character who prefers to work quietly behind the scenes.” The article's list of famous people born in the Year of the Pig includes Chiang Kaishek, Jerry Lee Lewis, Lee Kuan Yew, Ronald Reagan, and Woody Allen. Does this increase your respect for astrology?

I have known some pigs. Well, maybe not exactly “known” – I’m a city kid – but at least had feelings for them. We won’t count Charlotte’s Web or the Three Little Pigs, and I probably shouldn’t even mention the pig jokes (“I haven’t had so much fun since the day the pig ate my little brother”).

If you deal with China, pigs are part of the deal, but they play a different role from elsewhere. Anthropologists duel over why peoples in the ancient Middle East (not just the Jewish pastoralists) avoided the “abominable pig.” This is a puzzle. Pigs are supremely efficient at converting their feed to meat, sows farrow quickly, and the meat is quite tasty. So what's not to like? Mary Douglas argued that pigs were impure because they defied proper categories (Douglas 1966). Marvin Harris, in his classic Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches, makes an ecological argument: pigs were not suited to the hot, arid climate (they don’t sweat, so they wallow in mud); goats and sheep eat grass, but pigs don’t; pigs were a cultural marker of difference from the settled agriculturalists; in short, they were too expensive. Richard Lobban, Jr. followed up with a comparative study which found a correlation between pig ecology and prohibition; cool, moist conditions, such as those in Europe and China, correlated with eating pork. (Lobban, 1994; p. 71).

In China no supreme being commanded “eat not this flesh,” whether of pig, dog, or cow; still, from early on the main role of the pig was not at dinner. Economically, pigs were a great deal for farmers. They recycled waste which nobody else would touch, produced fertilizer, and at the end of the year this “piggy bank” could be carted to market to realize a cash profit. One scholar counted the fluctuation in pig skulls in neolithic tombs and concluded that pigs were important not only to eat and in religious ceremonies but to build political power (Kim 1994). Han Dynasty funerary models found in tombs included combination pig sty-latrines – when we say pigs “recycle waste” we’re not fooling! Ch’u T’ung-tsu and Hsu Cho-yun describe Han dynasty herders whose pigs rummaged through the swamps and forests.

By early modern times, the forests which fed herds were gone. The human population was so intensive that it didn’t make sense to feed animals on grain since a given piece of land could support many more people if they ate what they grew rather than feeding it to animals. But pigs fit into a niche where cows or other grain eaters could not; the disgusting eating habits of the pig came from the power of its gut to get nutrition from what had already passed through an inefficient human’s. (The fascinating subject of nightsoil will have to wait for another day). The value of this pig fertilizer was low, but the cost was almost nothing.

A knowledgeable American who lived in China in the 1930s related the “biography of a Shantung pig.” It was a “rare thing," he observed, "for a hog to be raised from piglet to pork chop by a single farmer, and equally rare for a Chinese farmer to raise more than a single hog at a time.” The piglet was sold at market by a breeder (after being castrated to prevent competitive breeding); raised in a private pig pen-latrine; fattened by still a third owner for the meat market; then “betrayed to the butcher.” None of these farmers could afford to eat the meat, which the butcher sold by the ounce. (Winfield, 1948 pp. 64-66)

The cultural overtones of pigs in Chinese society were quite different from the Middle Eastern ones. Who could forget “Pigsie ,” Arthur Waley’s name for Zhu Bajie, the half pig, half human character in Journey to the West? Farmers are not sentimental about what they raise to be butchered, but one of my first Chinese teachers in Taiwan explained that the Chinese character jia (often translated as “home” or “family”) shows a pig under a roof. I had long wondered if this was reliable or just a folk etymology, and am thankful to Alan Baumler for sending me a solid reference which clears up the question:

Mark Lewis, in his Construction of Space in Early China, p. 92, says (following Xu Shen) that the character , home, is not a pig under a roof, but a child under a roof, as the seal-script hai looked a lot like shi . In his notes he has a quote from Lu shi chun qiu that illustrates the possible confusion:

Zi Xia was going to Jin and passed through Wei. Someone reading a historical chronicle said “The Jin army, three pigs, forded the Yellow River.” Zi Xia said, “That is wrong. This says ji hai”[己亥, one of the sexagenary cycle used to indicate the day] The character “ji ”is close to three [san ] and the character pig [shi ] resembles child [hai ]

But the folk etymology reflects a truth. Pigs often lived under the same roof with the family (I have seen this myself in the Sichuan countryside). This human/ livestock cohabitation is the reason viruses pass back and forth between humans and animals more easily in China than in places with the luxury of grain fed meat. One hypothesis is that the virus pandemic of 1918 started in Chinese pigs, while the transmission of SARS from domestic fowls to humans is well established.

What can pigs tell us about China's modernity? Sigrid Schmalzer shows us in an eye-opening article, “Breeding a Better China: Pigs, Practices, and Place,” (Schmalzer, 2002), about agrarian reform and modernization in Ding Xian in the 1930s. I had thought I knew something about this. After all, I had written a book (Hayford, 1990) which told the story of the Ding Xian [Ting Hsien] Experiment. James Yen [Yan Yangchu] and his colleagues set out to demonstrate that Maoist revolution was not needed in order to transform the Chinese village; they also rejected the wholesale, uncritical adoption of Western models. They aimed to produce Sinified scientific techniques which fit Chinese realities. Including pigs.

So Sigrid’s article took me by surprise. By looking at what “science” actually meant to these agrarian reformers, not just their intentions, she dissects what goes astray when social experiences are not taken into account in defining "science." The article challenges the universality of modernity based only on Western practice.

A little background: In the late 19th and early 20th century, Chinese farmers actually did pretty well. Imperialist depredations damaged China politically but many farmers benefitted from new technology, expanded transportation, growing urban markets, and even exports. Alan’s map suggests to me that the number of pigs in North China grew because farmers, long skilled at responding to the market, used these old friends on a new scale. The Rural Reconstruction reformers correctly saw that the key to improving village life was not to destroy some unchanging “feudal” system but to take advantage of the long standing commercial mentality of the small farmer. Among other things, they introduced better breeds of pigs.

Schmalzer argues that the reformers nonetheless made several mistakes. One was to assume that Chinese pigs served the same function as American ones. American farmers wanted pigs to convert their abundant corn into bacon, not scraps into fertilizer. American pigs were “scientifically” bred to produce more meat and therefore less fertilizer. Second, the reformers left out gender: Chinese pigs were domestic partners, raised mostly by women. What’s more, the Chinese system prized sows, and over the years bred selectively for sows which produced large, frequent, litters of admittedly smaller piglets; American breeders valued boars and bred for size and fashionable looks to compete at the county fair. The reformers introduced American boars so huge that they had to build special support platforms for mating.

When the Japanese invasion of 1937 ended the Ding Xian experiment, the imported pigs disappeared into the chaos of war. James Yen and agricultural scientists had no time to produce modern, scientific techniques based in Chinese practice. So in the end the difference was not between “scientific” (i.e. Western) pig breeding and Chinese folkways but between American and Chinese needs and situations.

An afterword. When my wife and I visited Yen's Philippines Rural Reconstruction Movement in the late 1960s, local workers showed us the air conditioned pens housing the pigs introduced from the States; the new pigs, they explained, couldn’t stand the heat, were sensitive to sun burn, and demanded special treatment – not unlike, the local workers slyly added, most of the other Americans they knew.

And you thought pigs were pigs! If so, you should read Richard P. Horwitz, Hog Ties: What Pigs Tell Us About America (1998). Rich, a friend who teaches American Studies at University of Iowa, worked on a pig farm and knows his... fertilizer. Pigs are more like people than most animals, so Rich demonstrates that the way we treat them says a lot about our values and practices.

Works Cited:

T'ung-tsu Ch'u, ed. by Jack L. Dull, Han Social Structure (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972).

Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London: Routledge, 1966).

Charles W. Hayford, To the People: James Yen and Village China (NY: Columbia University Press, 1990)

Richard P. Horwitz, Hog Ties: What Pigs Tell Us About America (Orig. Hog Ties: Pigs, Manure, and Mortality in American Culture (1998) rpr. University of Minnesota Press, 2002).

Cho-yün Hsü, ed. Jack L. Dull, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D. 220 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980).

Seung-og Kim, “Burials, Pigs, and Political Prestige in Neolithic China,” Current Anthropology 35.2 (1994): 119-141.

Mark Edward Lewis, The Construction of Space in Early China (State University of New York Press, 2006).

Richard A. Lobban Jr, “Pigs and Their Prohibition,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 26.1 (1994): 57-75.

Sigrid Schmalzer, “Breeding a Better China: Pigs, Practices, and Place in a Chinese County, 1929-1937,” The Geographical Review 92.1 (January 2002): 1-22.

Wikipedia, “Pig (Zodiac),” (accessed January 27, 2007)

Gerald F. Winfield, China: The Land and the People (New York: Sloane, 1948).

1/11/2007

Pigs

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 9:59 am
How many pigs were there in China during the warlord era? I came across the wonderful site Strange Maps, and one of their offerings was a 1922 map of world hog production World O' Pigs The text says that this is a map of industrial-scale pig breeding. China seems a bit over-represented here. Yes, every farm in China should have a couple pigs. So should every farm in Ohio and Korea, but the densities there seem much lower, and it can't just be population. Were Chinese really eating all that much ? Or was there a big export industry? Either would be interesting as the first would be a sign of a surprising prosperity, and the later a sign of China getting an export industry right in the 1920s. Does anyone know if there is anything out there on Late Imperial/Republican pigs?

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