Chinese geologists rejected the Confucian values of the political and social order and associated them with parochialism and complacency. However, they not only accepted the deeply Confucian values of the intellectual as servitor-cum-guide to state and society, but they also managed to identify this role with progressivism and morality by taking it as a call to self-criticism and renewal. ….geologists' shared sense of Chineseness grew out of their admission of guilt and the dedication to self-transformation. Geology was a discipline that would reshape its practitioners and resuscitate the nation on the verge of extinction. Unearthing the Nation. p.10You could use that as a nice summary of the May 4th project, and in fact I did so in class last week. Geology also matters because it ties in with wealth and power better than lots of other fields of study. Locating valuable rocks was something that both Chinese modernizers and foreign exploiters could get behind. Shen shows how Chinese geologists managed to replace foreigners and gradually they became the ones who surveyed an interpreted China's rocks for both foreign and domestic audiences. Geology had only fitful support from the Chinese state, but it was popular with young Chinese, in part because the emphasis on fieldwork helped distinguish geologists from traditional educated youth “with pale faces and slender waists, seductive as young ladies, timorous of cold and chary of heat, weak as invalids.” (( quote from Chen Duxiu. Were there any female geologists?)) Geologists also served the nation. They were the ones who found the Tungsten and other rare materials that wartime China exported. They also defined China as they Chinese would like. As Li Siguang put it.
at the time most people in western Europe invariably thought that Tibet was not fully part of China, and to correct this mistaken concept (whether intentional or unintentional) I purposely gave the Tibetan plateau first place among China's natural regions. p.136Of course service to the nation came with a price. The geologists did a better job than you might think in balancing a desire to do pure science and to serve China.
By training their sights on the overall development of geology in China and remaining flexible about details and timing Chinese geologists achieved many of their own goals while catering to the interests of both native philanthropists and foreign funding agencies. When the remains of Peking Man were first announced in 1926, for instance, the Chinese geological community quickly turned its attention to paleoanthropology. Though it had no experience in this field, the Geological Survey convinced the Rockefeller Foundation to fund a Cenozoic Research Laboratory to study both Peking Man and the “tertiary and quaternary deposits of northern China” more broadly. p.185This fits it with a lot of other examples I can think of where scholars adjusted their research to funding. It would be nice to have unlimited money to study anything, but practice that is not how China, or anywhere else, actually works. If you want a nice, short, well-written book that explains the birth of a modern science in China and why it matters, this is a good choice.
Buy Lasix Without Prescription, So I spent some time at the library going through 圖畫日報 Although it is not a paper that lasted long (1909-1910) there is lots of cool stuff here connected to the it's mission of exposing China to the world. No prescription Lasix online,
Chicago is a city of skyscrapers, the ideal city " built of clouds." （白雲砌成） including the 21 story 商務總會, ordering Lasix online, Cheap Lasix no rx, (commercial association building， maybe the Chicago Stock exchange?) a 13 story 婦奴節用會 (Women's holiday meeting place. Could this be Marshall Fields?) and an 11-story 大妓院 (da ji yuan) with 600 rooms, Lasix no prescription. 大妓院 would, I think, mean a brothel, Buy Lasix Without Prescription. Lasix street price, I'm guessing that this is a reference to Palmer House or one of the other big downtown hotels which were, as we all know, Lasix dosage, Buy cheap Lasix no rx, the haunts of "adventuresses" in accounts of the city of sin.
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Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription, I have tried to stay off the subject of how the internet will change the world, since there is enough of that on the internet already. Ampicillin dose, I was struck by this piece, (Via Sullivan) which gushes about the wonderfulness of self-publishing, australia, uk, us, usa, Real brand Ampicillin online, specifically the idea that Joshua Marshall is hiring a publisher.
The sheer joy of the idea that the creators should have the whip hand and "publishers" just be errand boys who handle making the copies (think of a university without administrators) is likely to cloud the mind, Ampicillin online cod, Kjøpe Ampicillin på nett, köpa Ampicillin online, but there is more to this than just happy visions of publishers tending the gardens of the Forbidden City. What would the world look like without publishers, Ampicillin samples. Ampicillin maximum dosage, Without music company executives.
Happily, China had a thriving printing culture for a good thousand years before the introduction of western-style printing machinery in the late 19th century created a modern publishing industry, so we know something about this. The Chinese reluctance to adopt movable type is even now sometimes presented as a puzzling example of the anti-technological bias of those silly people, but actually there was no great need for it, Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription. Woodblock printing had already begun revolutionizing Chinese culture by at least the Song dynasty, Ampicillin treatment, Online buy Ampicillin without a prescription, and movable type did not add much. One of the big advantages of woodblock printing was that it cheaper and required less capital, Ampicillin wiki. Ampicillin mg, To print a book with movable type need a set of type with many copies of each letter (expensive in the West, more so in China) and literate typesetters, Ampicillin pictures. Order Ampicillin no prescription, Since the type is broken up up after printing a page you need to have the capital to buy enough paper (usually a major expense) and to wait for the things to sell or to swallow the loss if they don't. Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription, With Chinese block printing you needed a literate author to write the book, but then you could paste the paper on a woodblock and have an illiterate (and cheap) carver cut it out. Storing all the woodblocks could be a pain, get Ampicillin, Ampicillin trusted pharmacy reviews, but since you did not break them up you could print as many copies as you needed (print on demand!) and then keep the blocks. At least some literati would leave their woodblocks in their wills, Ampicillin photos. Ampicillin class, (I know Yuan Mei did, and I would guess others did too.) There was far less need for the work publishers do and the capital they provide, buy generic Ampicillin. What is Ampicillin, China certainly had publishers going back at least to the Ming. Cynthia Brokaw has written about the small-scale publishing houses that churned out and distributed cheap books for the masses, Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription. The commanding heights of Chinese publishing, order Ampicillin from mexican pharmacy, Ampicillin dangers, however, were occupied by the literati-publishers who were better known as writers, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Buy cheap Ampicillin no rx, editors, and collators than as publishers. If a person had a reputation that would sell books they did not need a lot of capital to go into business for themselves, purchase Ampicillin online no prescription. Generic Ampicillin, China did not have much by the way of copyright law back then, but they were somewhat protected by the fact that they had already made up the printing blocks for their famous works, Ampicillin canada, mexico, india. Ampicillin coupon, This would not help the small publishers making cheap copies of the Four Books, of course, ordering Ampicillin online, Ampicillin no rx, so they lived in a cutthroat low-margin market while the more elite writers floated above that.
This seems to be sort of what technology is creating today, Ampicillin alternatives. Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription, Publishers still exist, and if you want to publish "Chicken Soup for a Goldfish's Soul" you will need a publisher to advertise it and make sure that stacks of it are piled up at the local gas station. Discount Ampicillin, If you are famous enough and not really wanting to go after Stephen King's sales records self-publishing is getting easier and easier. We may end up with a two-tier system like China had, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. What is Ampicillin, Oddly, the one place where new publishing trends are not really taking hold is academia, Ampicillin long term. Ampicillin duration, You would think that given all the authors who sell dozens of books on their own reputations rather than marketing hype, and the fact that getting it out there rather than getting rich is the goal, comprar en línea Ampicillin, comprar Ampicillin baratos, Ampicillin from canada, scholars would go in for self or electronic publishing. Journals certainly have, but academic books of course serve a purpose other than being read, which is proving that you are a scholar by coming out in hardback with the name of a publisher on the spine so that you can keep your job, Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription. The cultural importance of publishers is still there, ordering Ampicillin online, Buy Ampicillin from mexico, and it will be interesting to see how long they can resist the technological trends that are moving away from them.
There is a lot of scholarship on this, online Ampicillin without a prescription, although I would not blame any of the people below for the errors above.
Brokaw, Cynthia J. Commerce in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods. Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription, Harvard University Asia Center, 2007.
Brokaw, Cynthia J., and Kai-Wing Chow. Printing and Book Culture in Late Imperial China. 1st ed. University of California Press, 2005.
Rawski, Evelyn, Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription. Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China. University of Michigan Press, 1979.
Reed, Christopher A. Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876-1937. University of Hawaii Press, 2004.
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Needham’s ambition as a researcher had long been to create a biochemical embryology that would meld the reductionism of the chemists with the inevitable concern of biologists for organisms and processes as a whole. An anti-mechanistic (he preferred the term ‘organic’) view of science had an obvious appeal for developmental biologists... It pioneered the concept of living things organised in hierarchical levels, classically set out in Needham’s Order and Life (1936). The whole organism, he argued, could not be fully grasped at any one of the lower levels of increasing size and complexity – the molecular, macromolecular, cells, tissues etc – and new modes of behaviour emerged at each level which could not be interpreted adequately in terms of those below or at all, except in their relations. As he wrote in Order and Life, ‘The hierarchy of relations from the molecular structure of carbon to the equilibrium of the species and the ecological whole, will perhaps be the leading idea of the future.’ Process, hierarchy and interaction were the key to a reality that could be understood only as a complex whole. And – though one would not discover this from Winchester’s book – this view drew him towards the country and civilisation to which he devoted the rest of his life.Hobsbawm is not a scholar of Chinese science, ((neither am I)) so he goes a bit too far in the "holistic China" direction for me, but the review is an excellent addition to the book. If anyone ever writes a dissertation on Needham not as a scholar of China but as a link between the intellectual concerns of the English and the Chinese (maybe Waley would fit here as well) this would be a good staring point.
Moscow freely shared its atomic thefts with Mao Zedong, China’s leader. The book says that Klaus Fuchs, a Soviet spy in the Manhattan Project who was eventually caught and, in 1959, released from jail, did likewise. Upon gaining his freedom, the authors say, Fuchs gave the mastermind of Mao’s weapons program a detailed tutorial on the Nagasaki bomb. A half-decade later, China surprised the world with its first blast.This doesn't jibe with what I remember about the relationship at all. Perhaps I'm overreacting to the word "freely," but there was considerable resistance on the Soviet side to full cooperation with the development of Chinese atomic bomb and missile technology. (( See, for example, Sergei Goncharenko, "Sino-Soviet Military Cooperation,", Brothers in Arms: the Rise and Fall of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1963, ed. Odd Arne Westad, Stanford University Press, 1998, pp. 141-164. )) In most accounts that I've read, that foot-dragging was a significant element in the ultimate break between the two powers, and the Chinese had to work from the bits and pieces the Soviets gave them (( See, for example, Ji Qiang, "The scientists making the atomic bombs" [PDF], pp. 130-132, which describes Soviet help in the 1950s but that aid quietly disappears from the narrative around '59. )) combined with knowledge gleaned by Chinese who studied in the US and France. This doesn't seriously call into question the basic thesis of the book, which is that nuclear weapons technology spreads by diffusion -- usually with some element of theft, subversion or treason (( This isn't a new idea; I've been telling my students for years that the United States is the only nation to have actually invented the atomic bomb. But their level of detail and access to new sources sounds pretty substantial. )) -- and that China has been a major proliferator in the post-Mao era. (( The French are the other major nexus, having aided the Chinese and provided the Israelis with most of their technology, and Israel has gone on to share it with others, most notably South Africa. )) Reed and Stillman assert that
China in 1982 made a policy decision to flood the developing world with atomic know-how. Its identified clients include Algeria, Pakistan and North Korea. Alarmingly, the authors say one of China’s bombs was created as an “export design” that nearly “anybody could build.” The blueprint for the simple plan has traveled from Pakistan to Libya and, the authors say, Iran.That puts China square in the middle of one of the most important and troubling trends of the last quarter-century.
While it's kind of nice to see a China scholar like Needham getting the pop culture treatment, and the questions he raised are still worth pursuing, the reviews suggest that the emphasis on "Eccentric" is pretty severe. They also suggest that Winchester's biographical emphasis has left him with the wrong impression about the body of work which Needham's intellectual descendants still do. Andrew Leonard writes:
In the epilogue, Winchester asserts that the consensus opinion of current Sinologists is that "China, basically, stopped trying." That's too facile a summation when one is writing a biography of a man who devoted his entire life to understanding why China failed to capitalize on thousands of years of scientific and technological innovation. Winchester then skips through the main contending theories that attempt to explain China's failure: China's bureaucracy siphoned talent away from a potentially entrepreneurial merchant class, China did not have the spur to competition that Europe's many warring states inflicted on each other, China's totalitarian government quashed initiative.
This is a rehashing of old views of China that inspired the great "Needham Question" (( I did not, when I wrote this, realize that Winchester was the author of a Needham biography )): "Why didn't China have a Scientific Revolution and Industrial Revolution"? Half a century of scholarship has produced a massive aggregation of knowledge about science and technology in China which shows, among other things, that scientific and technical progress continued throughout the early modern period (which, started a half millenium earlier in China than in the West) but that China's population obviated the need for the kind of massive "labor saving" capital equipment, so industrial production moved in other directions. China was also experiencing a scientific flourishing in the Qing era, featuring fields from philology to botany. (( The term kaozheng escaped me until later )) China doesn't "fall behind" until around 1800, when the steam power revolution put England a quantum leap ahead of the pack. It then went through about 150 years of political turmoil in which economic and technical development often took a back seat to other issues, including imperialism, uprisings, revolutions, warlords.... [ellipsis in original; it's a bad habit]
The assumption that the Western model is "natural" or somehow inevitable unless someone "fails" to achieve it is patently absurd. Europe spent centuries in the shadow of the rest of the world before catching up in their Early Modern age (with the aid of a lot of imported Chinese technology), and finally, as Paul Kennedy (among others) argued, pulling ahead due to competitive pressures and (in the case of the British steam revolution) a certain amount of luck.
The upshot of the Needham tradition scholarship, as I understand it, is that it was more macroeconomic and political problems than technological skills which resulted in China's "lost ground" in the modern age, but a significant component of it was historical contingency (or "dumb luck," as we used to say). Nothing inevitable about it, and nothing fundamental. China wasn't the only great Early Modern empire to flounder in the modern age -- in fact, it was more the norm than the exception, as the Ottomans, Russians, Mughals, Iberians and Hapsburgs show. "The West" wasn't a terribly coherent entity -- especially not organizationally! -- and contrasting "it" with China without a little consciousness of the internal tensions, backwards regions, and failures contained within the Western tradition makes no sense, intellectually, historically or politically.