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Understanding China Through Comics

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 7:46 am

The third volume of Understanding China Through Comics is out, and it is good. In my previous reviews I talked about how well the books explained Chinese history and how well they worked visually. As before, the answer to both is pretty well, and they are getting better.

This volume goes from 907-1368, so we get the Song and the Yuan. This is a tricky period to deal with visually. There are a lot of foreigners around, and it is hard to distinguish them. Different hats will help.


Unlike western writers, Liu is committed to explaining all the political ins and outs of this period, and he does a pretty good job of sorting out the constant political shifts, although reading this also helps explain why so may other authors don't bother with all this.

As in the earlier volumes there is a lot of stuff explaining the past in terms of the present, so Song commercialization/technical advances is done through by having Malcom Gladwell drop by to discuss rice paddies. Gladwell

The Song is actually a pretty interesting test case for Liu's central thesis, that Chinese history is a 5,000 year quest to create a middle-class society, given that this is the time of the birth of an early modern commercial society and a time of great technological advance. SongTreadSongTechMost importantly, this was the time of Wang Anshi. Wang's reforms have garnered a lot of attention in the 20th century, since he is the Chinese official who's policies can be most easily linked to the present. If you want to find signs of modern administration, the welfare state, democracy, or incipient Communists totalitarianism in traditional China, Wang's reforms are where you look. Liu is clearly a member of Team Wang, presenting him as an upright technocrat who should have been listened to. WangAnshi The Song is also portrayed as the age when the "scholar-officials" came fully into power, and the idea that these upright technocrats were admirable and sacrosanct came from here. No more executing those who speak truth to power!ScholarsWhile all the above is both pretty good history and also clearly has modern resonances, Liu does point out that you can't read Chinese nationalism back into the past. Here we have peasants telling each other that it does not much matter who they are paying taxes to. This makes the books quite different from a lot of the Chinese history you see in China, where all of China's 56 ethnic groups have always been modern nationalists.  PeasantsDontcareUnfortunately, Liu does gloss over some of the more bothersome aspects of China's past. Footbinding is a good example. In this book it is presented as a way of protecting Chinese women from being carried off by barbarians.

FootbindingNobody has a really good explanation for why footbinding spread, but needless to say this is not one of the possible explanations. More importantly, this page reconciles me to the fact that Liu is not planning to go past 1911 in his history. If you won't look at the uglier part of your history, what can you do with those who rebel against it? If you leave out what footbinding really was you can't do Joe Hill or MLK, or Lu Xun or Liang Qichao. I guess they are just nagging troublemakers, rather than the best of what you are.


At the same time the new, re-drawn and expanded revised edition of Volume One is out. (( Jing Liu claimed he "fixed some of the problems you pointed out.", and while I doubt I had much influence on what he did, it is nice to think that this is a blog that Gets Results. )) Liu seems to be warming to his task, and in this new world of publish on demand he can re-work his stuff as much as he wants. Here is China surrounded by foes in the introduction to the old Volume 1

Divided V1

And here it is on p.13 of the new version


Not only are the drawings more detailed, they are better in that they convey more. You can loose yourself in the second one in a way you can't in the first version.

Here is the old version of Confucianism as a means of social mobility Mobility V 1

Here is the new.


He has also expanded some parts. In the last version I mentioned that this was about as well as you could explain Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism in one page,


but also pointed out that it might be o.k to use more than one page. Here is (part of) the new version.


We also get a bit more history of technology, and also a tendency to have characters leap out of the page to explain things to us.

It is still pretty much the same book, only better.



Buy Plavix Without Prescription

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 5:51 am

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I have been reading Patricia Ebrey's new book on the Song emperor Huizong. For those of you who don't know him he known for being the most artistically accomplished of the Chinese emperors and for loosing his empire to the Jin. These things make him a good subject for a book, as a lot was written and preserved about him, Plavix without a prescription. The book itself is one of the most intimate portraits of a Chinese emperor in English, and there is a lot of good stuff in here on the Song government, Order Plavix no prescription, Huizong's actions and artistic production and other interesting topics. I am mostly going to talk about the fall of the Song and its aftermath. The defeat and exile sections are among the most detailed in the book, no doubt because the theme of an exiled emperor was attractive to later writers and compilers of sources

You can get some tips on how to conduct a siege, Buy Plavix Without Prescription. When the first Jurchen army approached Kaifeng they decided not to enter the city, but to demand ransom, Plavix photos.

...the capital was thrown into an uproar trying to raise the truly huge sum of gold and silver, equal to 180 times the annual payments that Song had been paying to Liao. Plavix from mexico, The government treasuries had large quantities of copper cash, bur the Jurchen wanted gold and silver, in much shorter supply. Everyone who had received gifts of gold or silver from the throne, cheap Plavix no rx, including all the princes, Daoist officials, Plavix duration, court musicians and artists, and so on, were to turn it over at the Yuanfeng Treasury. Buy Plavix Without Prescription, All palaces and imperially sponsored temples, as well as the Kaifeng prefectural offices were to turn over any gold and silver they had to the main treasury. Huge sums were confiscated from Wang Fu's house- more than seven thousand bolts of cloth and ten million strings of cash- but a third of that was looted by people who forced their way in during the inventory, about Plavix. By 1126/1/20, the besieged Song court sent to the Jin camp more than three hundred thousand ounces of gold and twelve million ounces of silver. Kjøpe Plavix på nett, köpa Plavix online, When that still was not enough, the government ordered any families owning gold or silver to turn it in to one of several collecting points. They would be compensated later at the rate of 20 strings of cash for each ounce of gold and 1.5 strings for each ounce of silver. Informing on those who concealed their gold or silver was rewarded at a rate of two-tenths of the concealed gold and one-tenth of the concealed silver, Buy Plavix Without Prescription. On 1/26, Plavix samples, the court sent the equivalent of another five hundred ounces of gold and eight million ounces of silver, with much of it made up of jewelry and utensils collected from the populace. Buy generic Plavix, There was reason to rush; on 1/27 it was reported that the Jurchen were excavating the tombs of imperial consorts, princes, and princesses. (p.438)

I like the image of imperial largess flowing back to the palace, purchase Plavix online no prescription, starting first with the elite and then spreading outward. You can see the beginnings of panic in the city as a third of the wealth from Wang Fu's house is taken by the mob. Buy Plavix Without Prescription, Most interestingly, the Jurchen seem to have read their Foucault. Buy Plavix online no prescription, Rather than entering the city and searching for movable wealth, why not have the court and the populace discipline themselves and root it out. They can even change the copper cash in the treasury for silver and gold. Although the Jurchen army left the first time the Song court was too riven by factionalism to either make peace or  make war and by the end of the year another army was demanding even more gold and silver, australia, uk, us, usa, far more than the court could come up with.
Jin officials entered Kaifeng and opened the Song government storehouses, Buy Plavix without prescription, which were found to have even more bolts of plain silk than demanded, but only a tiny fraction of the gold and silver. Song officials were assigned responsibilities for searching specific quadrants of the city and confiscating all gold and silver, Buy Plavix Without Prescription. Every few days, the Jurchens demanded something else for the Song government to deliver to them, where can i buy Plavix online. For instance, on 12/5 Jin demanded ten thousand horses. Get Plavix, Ranking officials were allowed to keep one horse, but all others were seized, over seven thousand all together  The next day, 12/6, order Plavix from mexican pharmacy, Jin demanded weapons, many of which people had taken after soldiers abandoned them. Buy cheap Plavix no rx, Qinzong issued an order that all weapons in Kaifeng, both government and private, be turned over to the Jin authorities. Buy Plavix Without Prescription, A few days later, on 12/10, all the money in the storehouses was distributed to the Jin soldiers as their rewards. On 12/13 a call was issued for twenty painters, buy cheap Plavix, fifty wine-makers, and three thousand bottles of wine. Plavix schedule, Ten days later Jin demanded a long list of books and documents by name, including Sima Guang' s Comprehensive Mirror and calligraphy by Su Shi and Huang Tingjian. In some cases, the Kaifeng prefectual authorities had to buy the works from bookshops to fulfil the orders, where can i buy cheapest Plavix online. A few days after that, the books from the Directorate of Education were taken (though as an insult, What is Plavix, ones by Wang Anshi were discarded). As the scholars in Jin employ discovered that they were missing a title, they added it to their requisition lists, Buy Plavix Without Prescription. Just before the Lantern Festival, Jin demanded all the lanterns usually used not only by the palace, but also by temples and shops, my Plavix experience, then held their own ceremony outside the walls of the city. Not long afterward, Is Plavix addictive, they demanded the full set of procession paraphernalia, then took such objects as the Nine Cauldrons, the bells and other instruments used for the Music of Great Brilliance, consorts' headgear, doses Plavix work, the blocks for printing books, including those for the Buddhist and Daoist canons, Buy no prescription Plavix online, and maps, diagrams, and pictures of all sorts. From time to time, online buying Plavix hcl, the Jurchen commander requisitioned specific craftsmen or specialists, such as physicians, Comprar en línea Plavix, comprar Plavix baratos, musicians,astronomers, weapons makers, masons, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, gardeners, jade carvers, Plavix dose, clerks, painters, storytellers, professors, generic Plavix, Buddhist monks, and so on. Plavix description, Lists of objects taken from the palace are often staggering: 25,000 ancient bronze vessels, 1,000 ox carts, Plavix australia, uk, us, usa, 1,000 parasols, Plavix used for, 28,700 pills from the imperial pharmacy, 1,000, Plavix mg,000 jin of silk thread, 1, Buy Plavix online cod, 800 bolts of a certain type of silk made in Hebei.

Here you can see the definition of movable wealth expanding (and common Jurchen soldiers getting something.) but even more, the Jurchen are starting to demand symbols of Imperial authority, most notably the Nine Cauldrons, but also all the other things (and people) you needed to be ruler and could carry away, Plavix use. Buy Plavix Without Prescription, They even demonstrated their taste by tossing out the books of Wang Anshi. I love the idea of professors as booty, along with gold, Low dose Plavix, parasols, and bells.

As the situation slipped out of the control of the Song court things got worse and worse for the people of the city.

Although the city had fallen, Plavix dosage, the Jurchen forces kept the gates closed, enforcing, Plavix canada, mexico, india, in a sense, a reverse siege to keep up the pressure on the city until all its demands were met. Food and firewood, therefore, were in very short supply. On 12/21 the court allowed government office buildings to be demolished for firewood; the next day, after a snow fall aggravated the situation, approval was given for people to enter Northeast Marchmount Park to chop down the rare trees planted there, Buy Plavix Without Prescription. A few days later, with another snowfall, people were also allowed to break up the hundred-odd buildings in the garden for fuel. So many rushed there that people were trampled to death.

There were lots of other bad things happening in the city, but it is not surprising that the sources would focus on the park. There is almost a checklist of things a bad last emperor is supposed to do, and waste money is one of them (frugality is always good, especially in emperors.) and one of the canonical ways to waste money is by building parks and palaces. The Northeast Marchmount Park was one of Huizong's greatest achievements, a magnificent paradise that demonstrated his equivalence to the great rulers of antiquity. Buy Plavix Without Prescription, They too had built parks filled with animals and plants from all over their domain. Huizong was criticized for the expense of this park, and the costs it imposed on the people, and it is not surprising that cutting down its trees and burning its buildings would seem a fitting symbol of the end of his reign.

Huizong himself was a form of moveable wealth. The Jurchen eventually took him and his son and successor Qinzhong north, and both of them eventually ended up in Northern Manchuria. Huizong was of some use to the Jin, being required, for instance, to pay homage to the Jin ancestors, provide samples of his calligraphy and to convince Song holdouts in the north to surrender. They were pretty much the only male members of the family who were of much use, and many of others died on the march north, Buy Plavix Without Prescription.

The female members of his family and the various palace women were also a form of movable wealth, but all of them were of use. When the first large group of these women was brought to the Jurchen camp they were required to dress in entertainers clothes and serve the Jurchen generals at a banquet. Soon after it was announced that those women to be given to Jurchen soldiers were to start wearing their hair in the Jurchen fashion and let doctors abort their fetuses if they were pregnant. While most of the would eventually be distributed to Jurchen men or become palace slaves far in the north many died on the march due to harsh conditions, suicide, or died resisting rape. Buy Plavix Without Prescription, Other captives were traded off to the Tanguts, Mongols and Tartars at a ratio of 10 slaves to one horse.

While Huizong's captivity was certainly not the lifestyle to which he had become accustomed he did live reasonably well and even had another 14 children with his remaining concubines. He continued to write poetry, and for the first time began studying the Spring and Autumn Annals for advice on how to be a good emperor. A sound idea of course, but too late.



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Antabuse For Sale

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 7:39 am

Antabuse For Sale, Lots of bits of Chinese prose would make great blog entries. (A blog is basically a biji, order Antabuse from mexican pharmacy, Antabuse pharmacy, more or less) Plus, they make great things to teach from, generic Antabuse. Cheap Antabuse no rx, So, if any of you are teaching about the Song dynasty elite and their attitudes towards the mundane world you might find this from our guest-blogger Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修 to be helpful or informative.  (tips on working with it here)

A Record of the Pavilion of an Intoxicated Old Man

Ou-yang Hsiu

All around Ch'u there are mountains, Antabuse wiki, Antabuse canada, mexico, india, but the forests and valleys of that assemblage of peaks to the southwest are the finest. There is one that appears from afar most luxuriant and deepest in verdure—that is Lang-ya, Antabuse maximum dosage. Purchase Antabuse for sale, After you have walked six or seven tricents into the mountains, there you will gradually notice the sound of water gurgling, order Antabuse online c.o.d. Where it drains out between the two peaks, this is Brewer's Spring, Antabuse For Sale. Antabuse images, Rounding the peak the road winds; there a pavilion hangs, like a wing, buy Antabuse online cod, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, out over the spring. This is the Intoxicated Old Man's pavilion, buy generic Antabuse. Get Antabuse, Who was it that built this pavilion. A monk of these moun­tains, buy Antabuse from canada, Antabuse overnight, Chih-hsien. Antabuse For Sale, And who named it. The prefect, buy Antabuse from canada, Buy cheap Antabuse no rx, who called it after himself. When prefect and guests come to drink here, purchase Antabuse online, Antabuse from canadian pharmacy, because he becomes intoxicated after only drinking a little and because he is the oldest in years, that is why he nicknamed himself the Intoxicated Old Man, buy Antabuse online cod. Antabuse natural, But what he means by Intoxi­cated Old Man has nothing to do with the wine; it has to do instead with being in the mountains by the water. This joy from the mountains and the water he feels within his mind; he merely ascribes it to the wine, Antabuse maximum dosage.

Now the sun rises and the forest mists dissipate, the clouds return and the caves in ravines grow gloomy—these alternations of dusk and light mark mornings and evenings amid the mountains, Antabuse For Sale. Kjøpe Antabuse på nett, köpa Antabuse online, Wild flowers bloom with their hidden scents, beautiful trees leaf out with deepening shade, online buy Antabuse without a prescription, Australia, uk, us, usa, then winds rise and pure frost appears, the water level drops and the rocks protrude—such are the four seasons amid the mountains, buy generic Antabuse. Antabuse gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, In the morning he goes there, in the evening he returns; the scenery of the four seasons is never the same, Antabuse dangers, Generic Antabuse, hence his joy knows no bounds.

Those who carry loads on their backs sing along the path; sojourners rest beneath the trees, Antabuse used for. Canada, mexico, india, The ones in front call out and those behind respond. Antabuse For Sale, Some are bent over with age and others so young that they must be led by the hand. They come and go without cease—such are the travelers around Ch'u, Antabuse mg. Online buying Antabuse hcl, One may lean over this stream and fish; the stream being deep, the fish are fat, order Antabuse from mexican pharmacy. Antabuse class, Or one may brew wine with the spring water; the spring being fragrant, the wine is crystal clear, is Antabuse safe. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Sliced meats from the mountains and wild vegetables arrayed in profusion before the guests—such are the prefect's banquets. The joys of the feast are not from strings or winds; they are from winning at pitch-pot, from victory in chess, Antabuse For Sale. Passing goblets and mugs back and forth, buy Antabuse online no prescription, Antabuse treatment, shouting with abandon, now sitting,, now on their feet—such is the happy abandon of the guests. And the one who, ruddy-faced and white of hair, lies sprawled in their midst—that is the prefect intoxicated.

When the merriment is over and the evening sun sets among the mountains, the prefect goes home with his guests in tow, their shadows jumbled together. The forest gloom deepens; birds call high and low. Antabuse For Sale, The revelers all gone, the birds are joyful. Yet, though birds may know the joy of mountain forests, they know not the joy of mankind; men may know the joy of revels with the prefect and yet never know the prefect's enjoyment of their joy.

Intoxicated yet able to share their joy, able when sober to describe it in writing—such is the prefect. And what is this prefect's name. Ou-yang Hsiu of Lu-ling.               Translated by Robert E. Hegel


环滁皆山也。其西南诸峰,林壑尤美。望之蔚然而深秀者,琅琊也。山行六七里, 渐闻水声潺潺,而泄出于两峰之间者,酿泉也。峰回路转,有亭翼然临于泉上者, 醉翁亭也。作亭者谁?山之僧智仙也。名之者谁?太守自谓也。太守与客来饮于 此,饮少辄醉,而年又最高,故自号曰“醉翁”也。醉翁之意不在酒,在乎山水之间 也。山水之乐,得之心而寓之酒也。若夫日出而林霏开,云归而岩穴暝,晦明变化 者,山间之朝暮也。野芳发而幽香,佳木秀而繁阴,风霜高洁,水落而石出者,山 间之四时也。朝而往,暮而归,四时之景不同,而乐亦无穷也。至于负者歌于塗, 行者休于树,前者呼,后者应,伛偻提携,往来而不绝者,滁人游也。临溪而渔, 溪深而鱼肥;酿泉为酒,泉香而酒冽;山肴野蔌,杂然而前陈者,太守宴也。宴酣 之乐,非丝非竹,射者中,弈者胜,觥筹交错,坐起而喧哗者,众宾欢也。苍然白 发,颓乎其中者,太守醉也。已而夕阳在山,人影散乱,太守归而宾客从也。树林 阴翳,鸣声上下,游人去而禽鸟乐也。然而禽鸟知山林之乐,而不知人之乐;人知 从太守游而乐,而不知太守之乐其乐也。醉能同其乐,醒能述其文者,太守也。太 守谓谁?庐陵欧阳修也

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Buy Glucophage Without Prescription

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 7:39 am

Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, As I am half-heartedly getting ready for the Spring I am putting together some readings for my students. What survey would be complete without a chunk from the Secret History of the Mongols. So if you are looking to take a break from your preparations for Taiwan's Constitution Day this is a good way to take a break.  I would like to claim that I have carefully studied the whole text and picked out the best bit to give you a picture of Mongol society, but that's not really true. It is a good read though, if a little long for use in class.

from Chapter Four

After getting Ong Qan to come, Cinggis Qa'an and Ong Qan decided to move jointly against Jamuqa. They set out downstream along the Keluren River, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Cinggis Qa'an sent Altan, Qucar and Daritai as vanguard; Ong Qan for his part sent as vanguards Senggum, Jaqa Gambu and Bilge Beki. Patrols were also dispatched ahead of these vanguards: at Enegen Guileni they set up an observation post; beyond that, at Mount Cekcer, they set up another observation post; and beyond that, Glucophage reviews, at Mount Ciqurqu, they set up a further observation post. Altan, Qucar, Senggum and the others of our vanguard arrived at Utkiya. While they were deciding whether to camp there, a man from the observation post which had been set up at Ciqurqu came riding in haste and brought the news that the enemy was approaching. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, When this news came, without setting up camp they went towards the enemy in order to gain information. They met and gained the information: when they asked the enemy patrol who they were, it turned out to be Jamuqa's vanguard consisting of A'ucu Ba'atur of the Mongols, Buyiruq Qan of the Naiman, Qutu, the son of Toqto'a Beki of the Merkit, and Quduqa Beki of the Oyirat. These four had been going towards us as Jamuqa's vanguard.
Our vanguard shouted at them, purchase Glucophage, and they shouted back, but it was already getting late. Saying, 'Tomorrow we'll fight!', our men withdrew and spent the night together with the main body of the army.
Next day the troops were sent forward and when they met, at Koyiten, they battled, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. As they pressed on each other downhill and uphill, and reformed their ranks, those very same Buyiruq Qan and Quduqa, knowing how to produce a rainstorm by magic, started to conjure it up, but the magic storm rolled back and it was right upon themselves that it fell. Unable to proceed, they tumbled into ravines. Glucophage pictures, Saying to each other, 'We are not loved by Heaven!', they scattered.
Buyiruq Qan of the Naiman separated from the rest and went towards Uluq Taq on the southern side of the Altai Mountains. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Qutu, the son of Toqto'a of the Merkit, went towards the Selengge River. Quduqa Beki of the Oyir went towards the Sisgis River, making for the forest. A'ucu Ba'atur of the Tayici'ut went towards the Onan River.
Jamuqa plundered the very people who had elected him qan; then he moved homewards following the course of the Ergune. As they were dispersing in this way, Ong Qan pursued Jamuqa downstream along the Ergune while Cinggis Qa'an pursued A'ucu Ba'atur of the Tayici'ut in the direction of the Onan.
As soon as A'ucu Ba'atur reached his own people, he had them moved along with him in haste, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. The Tayici'ut A'ucu Ba'atur and Qodun Orceng arrayed their troops at Ulengut Turas on the other side of the Onan, and stood in battle order ready to fight.
Cinggis Qa'an came up and fought with the Tayici'ut. They battled to and fro incessantly until evening came; then, in the same place where they had been fighting, buy Glucophage online cod, they passed the night right next to each other. When people [the refugees] arrived, fleeing in disarray, they set up a circular camp and also passed the night in the same spot, alongside their troops.  In that battle Cinggis Qa'an was wounded in a vein of the neck. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, He could not stop the bleeding and was in a great plight. He waited till sundown, then he pitched camp just there where the two armies had encamped right next to each other.
Jelme sucked and sucked the blood which clogged Cinggis Qa 'an's wound and his mouth was all smeared with blood. Still, Jelme, not trusting other people, stayed there and looked after him. Until the middle of the night he swallowed down or spat out mouthfulls of the clogging blood.
When midnight had passed Cinggis Qa'an revived and said, 'The blood has dried up completely; I am thirsty.' Then Jelme took off his hat, boots and clothes - everything - and stark naked but for his pants, he ran into the midst of the enemy who had settled right next to them, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Buy Glucophage without prescription, He jumped  on to a cart of the people who had set up a circular camp over there. He searched for kumis, but was unable to find any because those people had fled in disarray and had turned the mares loose without milking them.
As he could not find kumis, he took from one of their carts a large covered bucket of curds and carried it back In the time between his going and coming back he was not seen by anyone. Heaven indeed protected him. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Having brought the covered bucket of curds, the same Jelme, all by himself, searched for water, brought it back and having mixed it with the curds got the Qa'an to drink it.
Three times, resting in between, the Qa'an drank, then he spoke: 'The eyes within me have cleared up.' He spoke and sat up: it was daybreak and growing light. He looked and saw that, all about the place where he was sitting, the wound-clogging blood that Jelme had kept on sucking and had spat about had formed small puddles. When he saw it, Cinggis Qa'an said, where can i find Glucophage online, 'What is this. Couldn't you have spat farther away?' Jelme then said, 'When you were in a great plight, had I gone farther away I would have feared being separated from you. As I was in haste, I swallowed what I could swallow and spat out what I could spit out; I was in a plight myself and quite a lot went also into my stomach!'
Cinggis Qa'an again spoke: 'When I was in this state, lying down, why did you run naked into their camp, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Had you been caught, wouldn't you have revealed that I was like this?' Jelme said, 'My thought, as I went naked, was that if somehow I got caught, I would have said, "I wanted to submit to you, but they found out and, seizing me, Buy cheap Glucophage, decided to kill me. They removed my clothes - everything - only my pants had not yet been removed when I suddenly managed to escape and have just come in haste to join you. They would have regarded me as sincere, they would have given me clothes and looked after me. Then, I would have jumped on a horse and while they were astonished watching me flee, in that brief moment I would have surely got back. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, So thinking, and because I wished to get back in time to satisfy the Qa'an's craving for drink caused by his parching thirst, thinking this and without so much as blinking an eye I went there.'
Cinggis Qa'an said, 'What can I say now. In former days, when the Three Merkit came and thrice circled Mount Burqan, you saved my life for the first time. Now, once more, you restored me to life when, with your mouth, you sucked the clotting blood from my wound, Glucophage schedule. And, yet again, when I was in a great plight with a parching thirst, disregarding your life, you went amidst the enemy without so much as blinking an eye; you quenched my thirst and restored life to me. These three services of yours will stay  in my heart!' Thus the Qa'an spoke.

When it had grown light, it turned out that the enemy troops who were bivouacking right next to us had dispersed during the night; only the people who had set up the circular camp had not moved from the place where they had encamped because they would not have been able to get
Cinggis Qa'an moved from the place where he had spent the night in order to bring back [i.e recapture] the people who had fled, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. As he was bringing back the fugitives, Cinggis Qa'an himself heard a woman in a red coat who, standing on top of a ridge, was wailing loudly, crying 'Temujin!' He sent a man to enquire whose wife was the woman who was crying like that. The man went and, having asked her, Taking Glucophage, that woman said, 'I am the daughter of Sorqan Sira and my name is Qada'an. The soldiers here captured my husband and going to kill him. As my husband was being killed I cried and wailed and called on Temujin to save my husband ' So
she said, and the man returned and reported these words to Cinggis Qa'an. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Hearing these words, Cinggis Qa'an rode at a trot and reached her; he dismounted near Qada'an and they embraced each other, but her husband had already been killed by our soldiers. .
After Cinggis Qa'an had brought back those people he camped on the spot for the night with his great army. He invited Qada'an to come to him and had her sit by his side.
The following day, Sorqan Sira and Jebe, who had been retainers of Todoge of the Tayici'ut, also arrived - the two of them. Cinggis Qa'an said to Sorqan Sira, 'It was indeed a good service of you, father and sons,

To throw to the ground
The heavy wood on my neck,
To remove the wooden cangue
That was on my collar.

Why, then, did you delay coming to me, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription.
Sorqan Sira said, 'At heart I felt full confidence in you, but how could I make haste, about Glucophage. Had I hurried and come to you earlier, my Tayici'ut masters would have blown to the winds, like hearth-ashes,  my wife and children, and the cattle and provisions I had left behind. Because of this I did not hurry, but now that the Tayici'ut have been defeated we came in haste to join our Qa'an.' When he had finished speaking, Cinggis Qa'an said, 'You did right!'
Again Cinggis Qa'an spoke, saying 'When we fought at Koyiten and, pressing on each other, were reforming our ranks, from the top of those ridges an arrow came. Get Glucophage, Who, from the top of the mountain, shot an arrow so as to sever the neckbone of my tawny war horse with the white mouth?' To these words Jebe said, 'I shot the arrow from the top of the mountain. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, If now I am put to death by the Qa'an, I shall be left to rot on a piece of earth the size of the palm of a hand, but if I be favoured,
For the Qa'an I will charge forward
So as to rend the deep water,
So as to crumble the shining stone.
For him I will charge forward
So as to split the blue stone
In the place which I am told to reach,
So as to crush the black stone
At the time when I am told to attack.'

Cinggis Qa'an said, 'A man who used to be an enemy, when it comes to his former killings and hostile actions "conceals his person and hides his tongue" - he is afraid. As for this one, however, he does not hide his killings and hostile actions; on the contrary, he makes them known. He is a man to have as a companion. He is named Jirqo'adai, but because he shot an arrow at the neckbone of my tawny war horse with the white mouth, rx free Glucophage, I shall call him Jebe [a type of arrow] and I will use him as my jebe arrow.' He named him Jebe and said,
'Keep by my side!'
This is the way in which Jebe came from the Tayici'ut and became a companion of Cinggis Qa 'an.

When, on that occasion, Cinggis Qa'an plundered tih Tayici'ut, he wiped out the men of Tayici'ut lineage, such the Tayici'ut A'ucu Ba'atur, Qoton Orceng and Qudu'udar he blew them to the winds like hearth-ashes, even to the offspring of their offspring, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Cinggis Qa'an carried away the people of their tribe, and spent the winter at Quba Qaya.
Old Sirgii'etu of the Niciigut Ba'arin tribe, together with his sons Alaq and Naya'a, seized Tarqutai Kiriltuq chief of the Tayici'ut, who was hiding in the woods, because he was a mortal enemy of Cinggis Qa 'an. As Tarqutai could not mount a horse, [he was too fat] they made him ride in a cart.
As Old Sirgu'etu and his sons Alaq and Naya'a were proceeding thus, holding down Tarqutai Kiriltuq, Glucophage online cod, the sons and younger brothers of Tarqutai Kiriltuq said, 'Let us take him away from them ' They approached and overtook them. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, When his sons and younger brothers caught up, Old Sirgii'etu got onto the cart and, sitting astride Tarqutai, who was lying on his back and unable to stand up, drew a knife and said, 'Your sons and younger brothers have come to take you away. Even if I do not kill you, telling myself that I am laying hands on my lord, they will surely kill me saying that I did lay hands on my lord. And if I do kill you, I shall of course be killed all the same. So, at the very moment I die, I shall die taking you as my death-companion.'
Thus saying he straddled him and was about to cut his throat with his big knife, when Tarqutai Kiriltuq, calling loudly to his younger brothers and sons, said, 'Sirgii'etu is kiling me. Once he has killed me, Glucophage samples, what will you achieve by taking away my dead and lifeless body. Draw back at once before he kills me, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Temujin will not kill me. When Temujin was still little, because

He had fire in his eyes,
He had a light in his face,

and because he had been abandoned in a camp without a master,' I went there to get him and brought him back home
with me:
Saying that if I taught him
He would be likely to leam,
I kept teaching and instructing him just as if
He was a two or three-year-old new colt
I had been training.
Had I wanted to make him die,
Would I not have been able to kill him.
They say that at present He is becoming thoughtful in his actions,
That his mind is clear.

Temujin will not cause me to die. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, You, my sons and younger brothers, quickly turn back at once lest Sirgu'etu kills me.' So he cried out loudly.  Tarqutai's sons and younger brothers conferred among themselves: 'We came to save father's life. Once Sirgu'etu has deprived him of his life, Cheap Glucophage, what can we do with his empty, lifeless body. Better to turn back at once before he kills him!' So saying, back they turned. Alaq and Naya'a, the sons of Old Sirgu'etu who had withdrawn on their arrival,
now returned. Sirgii 'etu, having waited for them to come back, moved on together with his sons.
As they proceeded on their way, on reaching the Qutuqul Bend' Naya'a then said, 'If we arrive holding this Tarqutai captive, Cinggis Qa'an will say of us that we came having laid hands on our rightful lord, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Cinggis Qa'an will say of us, "How trustworthy a people are these who come having laid hands on their rightful lord. How can they still be companions to us. They are people who are not worthy of companionship. People who lay hands on their rightful lord must be cut down!" Shall we not be cut down, Glucophage pharmacy. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Better to free Tarqutai and send him away from here, and go to Cinggis Qa'an saying, "We, possessing only our bodies, have come to offer our services to Cinggis Qa'an." We shall say, "We had seized Tarqutai and were on our way here, but we could not do away with our rightful lord. Saying to ourselves, 'How can we make him die before our very eyes?', we freed him and sent him away, and we have come respectfully to offer our services.'"
So he spoke and the father and sons, having approved these words of Naya'a, set Tarqutai Kiriltuq free and sent him away from Quduqul Bend.
When this same Old Sirgu'etu arrived with his sons Alaq and Naya'a, Cinggis Qa'an asked why they had come. Old Sirgii'etu told Cinggis Qa'an, 'We seized Tarqutai Kiriltuq and were on our way here, but then saying to ourselves, "How can we make our rightful lord die before our very eyes?", we could not do away with him. Glucophage photos, We set him free and sent him off, and came to Cinggis Qa'an to offer our services.'
At that, Cinggis Qa'an said, 'If you had come having laid hands on your lord Tarqutai, you and your offspring would have been cut down as people who had laid hands on their rightful lord. Your thought that you could not do away with your rightful lord is correct.' So saying, he showed favour to Naya'a, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription.
After that, when Cinggis Qa'an was at Dersiit, Jaqa Gambu of the Kereyit came to join him as a companion. When he arrived, the Merkit were approaching to fight. Cinggis Qa'an, Jaqa Gambu and other chiefs engaged them and drove them back. Then, Jaqa Gambu made the Tumen Tubegen and the Olon Dongqayit, two scattered tribes of the Kereyit, also come and submit to Cinggis Qa'an, Glucophage dose.
As for Ong Qa'an of the Kereyit, previously - in the time of Yisugei Qa'an - because they were living together very harmoniously, he and Yisugei Qan had declared themselves sworn friends. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, The manner in which they had declared themselves sworn friends was as follows:
Because Ong Qan had killed the younger brothers of his father Qurcaqus Buyiruq Qan, he had become a rebel towards his paternal uncle Gur Qan and was forced to sneak away through the Qara'un Gorge to escape from him. With only a hundred men he got out of the gorge and joined Yisugei Qan. Prompted by his coming to him, Yisugei Qan moved his own army into the field and, driving Gur Qan toward Qasin, he took Ong Qan's people and returned them to him. This is why they became sworn friends.
After that, when Ong Qan's younger brother Erke Qara was about to be killed by his elder brother Ong Qan, he escaped and submitted to Inanca Qan of the Naiman. Inanca Qan dispatched his troops, but Ong Qan in his wanderings had already passed three cities and had made his way to the gur qan of the Qara Kidat, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. From there, Glucophage cost, having rebelled against the gur qan, he passed through the cities of Uyiqut and the Tangqut. He fed himself on the way by milking five goats, muzzling their kids,  and by bleeding his camel.
While in these straits, he came to Lake Guseur . Cinggis Qa'an, on account of Ong Qan and Yisugei Qan having formerly declared themselves sworn friends sent him as envoys Taqai Ba'atur and Sukegei Je'un; then from the source of the Keluren River, Cinggis Qa'an went in person to meet him. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Because Ong Qan had arrived starved and exhausted, Cinggis Qa 'an raised taxes for him, brought him into the camp and took care of him.
That winter, in an orderly way they moved to new pastures and Cinggis Qa'an wintered at Quba Qaya.
Then Ong Qan's younger brothers and the chiefs said among themselves,
Our elder brother the Qan
Has a miserable nature; he goes on
Harbouring a rotten liver.

He has destroyed his brothers and has even submitted to the Qara Kidat - and he makes his people suffer, buy Glucophage from mexico. Now, what shall we do with him. To speak of his early days, when he was seven years old the Merkit carried him off; they gave him a kidskin coat with black spots to wear, and in the Bu'ura Steppe by the Selengge River he pounded grain in a Merkit's mortar. But his father Qurcaqus Buyiruq Qan raided the Merkit and there and then rescued his son, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. And again, when he was thirteen years old, Ajai Qan of the Tatar carried him off together with his mother. When Ajai Qan made him look after his camels, he took with him a shepherd of Ajai Qan and fled back home. After that, he fled again for fear of the Naiman and went to the gur qan of the Qara Kidat on the Cui River, in the country of the Sarta'ul. Online Glucophage without a prescription, Then, in less man a year, he rebelled and left once more. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, He skirted the country of the Ui'ut and the Tang'ut. Reduced to straits as he went on, he fed himself by milking five goats, muzzling their kids, and by bleeding his camel. He had only a blind yellowish-white horse with a black tail and mane. Being in these straits, he came to his son Temujin, who raised taxes and indeed took care of him. Now, forgetting that he kept himself alive like this thanks to his son Temujin, he goes on harbouring a rotten liver. What shall we do with him, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription.
So they said among themselves, Glucophage over the counter, and their words were reported by Altun Asuq to Ong Qan. Altun Asuq said, 'I too did take part in this scheme, but I could not do away with you, my Qan.' Then Ong Qan had his younger brothers and chiefs arrested: El Qutur, Quibari, Alin Taisi and the others who had thus conspired. From among his younger brothers, only Jaqa Gambu escaped and submitted to the Naiman.
Ong Qan had them brought in fetters into his tent and said to them, 'What did we pledge to each other when we passed by the country of the Ui'ut and the Tang'ut. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, How could I think like you?' So saying, spitting in their faces, he had them freed from their fetters. After they had been spat on by the Qan himself, the people who were in the tent all rose and spat on them. Buy no prescription Glucophage online, After having spent that winter (1201-1202) at Qaya, in the autumn of the Year of the Dog (1202), Cinggis Qa'an engaged these Tatars in battle at Dalan Neniu [Seventy Felt Cloaks] the Ca'a'an Tatar, Aici Tatar, Duta'ut [Tatar] and Aru Tatar. Before fighting, Cinggis Qa'an jointly issued  following decree: 'If we overcome the enemy, we shall not stop for booty. When the victory is complete, that booty will surely be ours, and we will share it among ourselves if we are forced by the enemy to retreat, let us turn back to th point where we began the attack. Those men who do not turn back to the point where we began the attack shall be cut down!' So he decreed with them, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription.
They fought at Dalan Nemurges and drove off the Tatars. After they had overcome them, they forced them to rejoin their tribe on the Ulqui Silugeljit River and thoroughly plundered them, Glucophage results. There and then they destroyed these important people: the Ca'an Tatar, Aici Tatar, Duta'ut Tatar and Aruqai Tatar.
As for the words of the decree that had been jointly issued, since Altan, Qucar and Daritai - all three - had not complied with them and had stopped for booty, Cinggis Qa 'an, saying that they had not complied with these words, sent Jebe and Qubilai to take away from them the herds of horses and the goods they had acquired as booty - every­thing they had seized. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Having destroyed and thoroughly plundered the Tatars, Cinggis Qa'an held a great council with his kinsmen m a single tent to decide what to do with the Tatar tribesmen. Together they decided as follows:
'From olden days the Tatar people Have destroyed our fathers and forefathers;
To avenge our fathers and forefathers,
And requite the wrong, for them
We shall measure the Tatars against the linchpin
of a cart,
And kill them to the last one, Ordering Glucophage online, We shall utterly slay them. [those taller than the litchpin]
The rest we shall enslave:
Some here, some there, dividing them among

The council being concluded, as they emerged from the tent the Tatar Yeke Ceren asked Belgutei what decision they had made. Belgutei said, 'We have decided to measure you all against the linchpin of a cart and slay you.'
At these words of Belgutei, Yeke Ceren issued a proclamation to his Tatars, and they raised a barricade. As our soldiers tried to surround and attack the Tatars that had barricaded themselves in, they suffered great losses. After much trouble, when they forced the barricaded Tatars into submission and were about to slay them to the last man by measuring them against the linchpin of a cart, the Tatars said among themselves, 'Let everyone put a knife in his sleeve and let us die each taking an enemy with us as a death-companion, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. ' And again we suffered great losses. In this way the Tatars were finally measured against the
linchpin of a cart and exterminated.
Then Cinggis Qa'an issued this order: 'Because Belgutei divulged the decision we took together with our kinsmen at the great council, our soldiers suffered great losses, Glucophage from canada. From now on Belgutei shall not join us in great councils; until the council ends, he shall handle those who are outside and, having dealt with them, he shall judge litigations and those guilty of theft and falsehood. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, When the council is over and after we have drunk the cerem wine, only then shall Belgiitei and Da' aritai join us'' So he ordered.
Then, on that occasion, Cinggis Qa'an took as wife Yisugen Qatun, daughter of the Tatar Yeke Ceren. Being loved by him, Yisugen Qatun said, 'If it pleases the Qa'an he will take care of me, regarding me as a human being and a person worth keeping.''  But my elder sister, who is called Yisui, Glucophage class, is superior to me: she is more suitable for a ruler. Recently, a bridegroom for her was taken into our family as a son-in-law. I wonder now where she has gone in all this confusion.'
On these words Cinggis Qa'an said, 'If your elder sister is better than you, let us make a search for her. But if your elder sister comes to hand, will you yield your place to her?' Yisugen Qatun said, 'If it pleases the Qa'an, as soon as I see my elder sister I shall yield to her.'
On this promise, Cinggis Qa'an issued the order and had a search made, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Our soldiers came across her as she was going into a wood together with the bridegroom to whom she had been given. Her husband fled. They then brought back Yisui Qatun.
When Yisugen Qatun saw her elder sister, keeping the promise she had made earlier, she rose and let her sit in the place she had occupied. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, She herself took a lower seat.
Since she tumed out to be as Yisugen Qatun had said, Cinggis Qa'an was pleased with her; he married Yisui Qatun and placed her in the rank of his principal wives.
After having completely ravaged the Tatars, buy Glucophage no prescription, one day Cinggis Qa'an sat outside drinking in company. He was sitting between both Yisui Qatun and Yisugen Qatun, and was drinking with them, when Yisui Qatun heaved a deep sigh Then Cinggis Qa'an, having thought it over, sum­moned Bo'orcu, Muqali and other chiefs, and said, 'You make all these people who have been assembled here - and no others - stand in groups of related families, and separate from the rest any man in a group which is not his own.' So he ordered.
As the people were standing thus in groups of related families, a handsome and alert young man stood apart from all the groups. When they said, 'To which clan do you belong?', that man said, 'I am the bridegroom to whom was given the daughter of the Tatar Yeke Ceren called Yisui, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. When we were plundered by the enemy, Purchase Glucophage online, I took fright and fled. I came hither because things seemed to have settled down now and I kept telling myself, "How can I be recog­nized among so many people?'"
When these words were reported to Cinggis Qa'an, he ordered: 'All the same, he has been living as an outcast, with hostile intentions; what has he come to spy upon now. Those like him we have measured against the linchpin of a cart and exterminated. Why hesitate. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Cast him out of my sight!' He was cut down immediately.
When, in that same Year of the Dog (1202), Cinggis Qa'an rode against the Tatars, Ong Qan rode against the Merkit. Pursuing Toqto'a Beki in the direction of the Barqujin Lowland, Ong Qan killed Togus Beki, the eldest son of Toqto'a, Glucophage australia, uk, us, usa, seized Toqto'a's two daughters Qutuqtai and Ca'alun and his wives, and plundered his two sons Qutu and Cila'un together with their people, but of all the booty he gave not one thing to Cinggis Qa'an.
After that, Cinggis Qa'an and Ong Qan rode against Buyiruq Qan of the Gucugut clan of the Naiman. They reached Soqoq Usun by the Uluq Taq where Buyruq Qan was staying at the time.
Unable to engage in combat, Buyiruq Qan went off, crossing the Altai Mountains, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. They pursued Buyiruq Qan n from Soqoq Usun and, forcing him to cross the Altai they chased him along the Urunggti River downstream at Qun Singgir.
While this was going on, a chief called Yedi Tubluq who was patrolling for Buyiruq Qan, was pursued by our patrol. As he was about to flee up the mountain side his saddle-strap broke and he was captured on the spot. Pursu­ing Buyiruq Qan down along the Urunggu River, Glucophage steet value, they over­took him at Lake Kisil Bas, and there they finished him off. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, As Cinggis Qa'an and Ong Qan were returning from that place, the great warrior Kokse'u Sabraq of the Naiman arrayed his troops at the Bayidaraq Confluence and prepared to fight them. Cinggis Qa'an and Ong Qan likewise decided to fight and arrayed their troops; however, when they arrived it was already getting late. They said, 'We shall fight in the morning!', and passed the night in battle order. Then Ong Qan had fires lit in the place where he was stationed and that same night moved upstream along the Qara Se'ul River.
Jamuqa then moved on together with Ong Qan and, as they went, Jamuqa said to Ong Qan, 'My sworn friend Temujin for a long time has been sending envoys to the Naiman, and now he has not come with us.
Qan, Qan, I am the skylark
That stays in one place;
My sworn friend is
The migratory lark.

He must have gone over to the Naiman and has remained behind with the intention of submitting to them.'
At these words of Jamuqa, Gurin Ba'atur of the Ubciq said 'How can you speak so deceitfully, backbiting and slandering your upright brother?'
Cinggis Qa'an had spent the night at that same place, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Early next morning, at daybreak, generic Glucophage, he wanted to fight, but when he looked across to Ong Qan's position, he found that he was no longer there. Saying, 'They certainly treat us like burnt offerings at the sacrifice for the dead,'' [Something that is no longer useful and can be discarded] Cinggis Qa'an also moved out from there. He crossed the river at the Eder Altai Confluence and, being on the move, proceeded further,
setting up camp in the Sa'ari Steppe.
Thereafter, Cinggis Qa'an and Qasar, having realised the difficulties of the Naiman, After Glucophage, no longer counted them as people to be reckoned with. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, Kokse'u Sabraq went in pursuit of Ong Qan. He captured the wife of his son Senggum together with all his people. He captured also half the people and livestock of Ong Qan which were at Telegetu Pass, and returned home.
At the time of that engagement, Qutu and Cila'un, the two sons of Toqto'a of the Merkit who were also there, separated from Ong Qan and, taking their own people with them, moved downstream along the Selengge River to join their father.
After being pillaged by Koksegu Sabraq, Ong Qan sent an envoy to Cinggis Qa'an. Through the envoy he sent this
message: 'I have been robbed by the Naiman of my people and my wife, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. I send this envoy to request from you, my son your "four steeds.'" Let them rescue my people for me!'
Cinggis Qa'an then sent Bo'orcu, Muqali, my Glucophage experience, Boroqul and Cila'un Ba'atur, these 'four steeds' of his, and arrayed his troops. Before the 'four steeds' arrived, Senggum had just joined battle with Kokse'u Sabraq at Hula'an Qut; his horse had been shot in the thigh by an arrow and he himself was about to be captured.
At that moment those 'four steeds' arrived and saved him, and they recovered his people and his wife for him -all of them. Ong Qan then said, 'Formerly his good father had saved my people who had been lost like this; now, once more, his son, by sending his "four steeds", has rescued my lost people for me. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, As to my repaying these favours, let only the protection of Heaven and Earth decide how, and in what measure. Doses Glucophage work, Ong Qan said further, 'My sworn friend Yisugei Ba'atur once rescued my lost people for me; his son Temujin has again rescued for me my people who had gone away. When these two, father and son, gathered the lost people and returned them to me, for whose sake did they take the trouble of gathering and returning them.
As for myself, now
I have grown old, and having grown old,
When I shall ascend to the heights -
I have grown ancient, and having grown ancient,
When I shall ascend to the cliffs -
Who will govern all my people?

]y[y younger brothers lack force of character; there is only Senggum, my one son, but it is as if he did not exist. If I make my son Temujin the elder brother of Senggum, Glucophage no rx, I shall have two sons and my mind will be at rest.' Having said this, Ong Qan and Cinggis Qa'an met together in the Black Forest by the Tu'ula River and declared themselves father and son. The reason why they declared themselves father and son was because in early days Ong Qan had declared himself a sworn friend of Cinggis Qa'an's father Yisugei Qan, and by virtue of this fact Cinggis Qa'an said that Ong Qan was like a father to him, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. Such was the reason why they declared themselves father and son. They made the following promises to each other:
'When we attack the enemy hosts,
We shall attack together as one;
When we chase the cunning wild beasts,
We shall also chase them together as one!'

So they declared. Cinggis Qa'an and Ong Qan also pro­mised each other, saying,
'Out of jealousy for us two -
Should a snake with venomous teeth
Provoke discord between us,
Let us not succumb to his provocations.
By talking only mouth to mouth
We shall believe each other
Should a snake with venomous fangs
Spread slander about us,
Let us not accept his slander.
By explaining only face to face
We shall believe each other!
Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, And, pledging their word, they lived together in mutual affection.

'On top of affection let there be more affection Cinggis Qa'an thought; and requesting the younger sister of Sengglim, Glucophage without a prescription, Ca'ur Beki, for his son Joci he said, 'I shall give in exchange our daughter Qojin Beki to Senggum's som Tusaqa.'
When this request was made, Senggum, then, imagining himself to be very important, said, 'If a kinswoman of our goes to them, she would have to stand by the door and only face towards the back of the tent; but if a kinswoman of theirs comes to us, she would sit in the back of the tent and face towards the door." So, imagining himself to be very important, he spoke disparagingly of us; he was not pleased with our proposition and would not give Ca'ur Beki.
Because of these words, Cinggis Qa'an in his heart lost affection for Ong Qan and Nilqa Sengglim.
Jamuqa realised that Cinggis Qa 'an had in this way lost his affection for them, comprar en línea Glucophage, comprar Glucophage baratos. In the spring of the Year of the Pig (1203), Jamuqa, Altan and Qucar, Ebugejin and Noyakin of the Qardakin tribe, To'oril of the Soge'en tribe and Qaci'un Beki, all these, having come to an understanding, set out and went to Nilqa Sengglim at Berke Elet, on the northern side of the JeJe'er Heights.
Slandering Cinggis Qa'an, Jamuqa spoke: 'My sworn friend Temujin has messengers sent with secret communica­tions to Tayang Qan of the Naiman, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription. His mouth is saying "father" and "son", but his behaviour is quite otherwise. Are you going to trust him. If you do not take him by surprise and strike at him, Australia, uk, us, usa, what will become of you. If you move against my sworn friend Temujin, I will join you and attack his flank!'
Altan and Qucar said, 'As for the sons of Mother Ho'elun.foryou,

We shall kill the elder brother,
And do away with the younger brother!'

Ebugejin and Noyakin - the two Qarta'at - said, 'For
We shall seize his hands,
And grasp his feet!'

To'oril said, 'The best plan is to go ahead and capture Temujin's people. Buy Glucophage Without Prescription, If his people are taken away from him
and he is left without them, what can he do?'
Qaci'un Beki said, 'Prince Nilqa Sengglim, whatever you decide I shall go with you,

To the farthest limit,
To the bottom of the deep!'

Having been told these words, Nilqa Senggum reported to his father Ong Qan those very words through Sayiqan
Tode'en. When he was told this, Ong Qan said, 'How can you think such things about my son Temujin. Until now we had him as our support, and if now we harbour such evil intentions towards my son, Glucophage without prescription, we shall not be loved by Heaven. Jamuqa has a glib tongue. Is he right in what he says. Is he correct?' He was displeased and sent back Sayiqan Tode'en, Buy Glucophage Without Prescription.
Senggum sent another message saying, 'When any man with a mouth and a tongue says these things, how can one not believe him?' He sent messages twice, three times, but could not convince Ong Qan. Finally, he went to him in person and said, 'Even now, at a time when you are still so lively and well, Temujin has not the slightest regard for us. Truly, when you, his father the Qan, will have reach the age when men

Choke on the white milk,
And are stifled by the black meat,

will he let us govern your people - the people that your father Qurcaqus Buyiruq Qan gathered laboriously in  great number. How will he let anyone govern it?'
At these words, Ong Qan said, 'How can I do away with my child, my son. Because until now he has been our support, is it right to harbour evil intentions against him^?We shall not be loved by Heaven.'
At these words, his son Nilqa Senggum became angry-he pushed off the tent-door and left. But Ong Qan, con­cerned about losing the affection of his son Senggum, called him back and said to him, 'Who knows whether we shall be loved by Heaven after all. You say, "How shall we do away with the son?" Just do what you can - it is for you to decide!'

From Igor de Rachewiltz's translation. Brill 2004.

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Obama for Minister of the Left

Filed under: — Alan Baumler @ 12:01 pm
Some historians have gone so far as to endorse Barak Obama for the office of President of the United States. Lots of people who seem to have very little affinity with the policy positions Obama has advanced on his website find him to be attractive. How can this be? Is not democratic politics a matter of picking the candidate whose policy positions you find most compatible and then voting for them? Well, yes and no. At least some of choosing a president is choosing a symbol of the nation. Thus the suitably of a candidate to be a flattering self-reflection is also important. Most of the time we Americans select our politicians (if we give the matter any thought at all) on what promises they make and what things they say they will do. The moral qualities of an official are not something we worry about too much. On the other hand, we do occasionally tend to think some politicians are more than just a set of checkmarks on a list of policies ((As Mitt Romney is discovering)) but rather symbols of whatever an American is (Kennedy and Reagan come to mind) Americans seem to have problem with this, as our political language is not well suited to this type of talk. Jounalists do ask, incessantly, the silly question of which candidate you would most like to have a beer with ((Bush, obviously. Being rich he would pay and as he does not drink I would get both beers.)) I think Dukakis ran an ad pointing out that politicians and beer buddies are not the same thing. In China things are a bit easier, in part because one does not need to worry about electing leaders all the time and in part because traditionally Chinese politics had a lot to do with moral qualities. One of these is friendship, which is both one of the five bonds of Confucianism and crucial to understanding much of Chinese political history. Somebody said that nations do not have permanent friends, only permanent interests, but members of the Chinese elite did have friends. Wyatt talks a lot about the role of friendship in The Recluse of Loyang, a study of Shao Yung (1011-1077) whose political role in the Song centered around his friendship with powerful men and their desire to be friends with a man like Shao Yung. As Shao put it in a 1074 poem

A man mustn't seek his reflection in flowing water;

He must seek it in water that is still.

Flowing water has no fixed form,

While still water provides a fixed entity.

[But] neither should a man seek his reflection in water [at all].

He should seek his reflection in other men.

Water's mirror may show a man's face,

But a human mirror exposes a man's spirit.

(Wyatt)This poem encapsulates a code that is simultaneously exclusionist and yet immanently social. Shao the recluse could not conceive of passing through life alone; still, he was unwilling to settle for anything less than full perfectibility in his prime relationships.

This should not be taken as an endorsement of Obama by this website, Shao Yung, or myself, but I think this poem does a lot to explain the Obama phenomena. Much better to look in the mirror and see Obama then to see (insert name here.) I suspect that democratic politics in China, if it ever comes to be, will be rather different than that in the U.S. For Su Fei's Chinese take on American politics look here.


Lumpy Chinese History

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 3:54 am
There are a few places to go for archived syllabi -- H-Net, ExEAS, I had a printed collection at one point, as well, then there's the GMU Syllabus Finder -- but not a lot of open discussion of course design. I've gotten help on sources, etc., from lists like H-Asia or by blogging questions ("bleg" means to "beg via blog" but it looks like "blech" to me so I won't use it) and bothering old friends. But we need a more sustained discussion. So I'm going to inaugurate what I hope will be an ongoing series of posts here (and the other blogs about syllabi I've designed or am working on. My only Asian history syllabus this semester is Hist 312: China I: Early China. It covers China up to about 1600: China II is Qing, including the Ming-Qing transition; China III is 20th century. Early China is a great course: I keep toying with the idea of making it the one required Asian course for history majors, because the material is so fundamental, and it's my best-attended China course by far. The problem, of course, is the richness and range of the material. This semester, though, I'm not even trying to make the semester "flow" because the history itself doesn't. It's episodic and inconsistent and the emphasis has to shift to make sense of things. The foundation of the course is in two books. The first is the textbook, of course: Valerie Hansen's The Open Empire is a great book, well-written and challenging at the same time, with lots of material for me to work with and good basic stuff for the students. There may be a better textbook out there for this class, but I don't know of it. My chief complaint about the book -- relative weakness of intellectual/religious history -- will be rectified with other readings (actually, I suspect that when she wrote the book, she knew that most teachers would spend quite a bit of time on the philosophical traditions anyway, so she didn't have to). The second "constant companion" this semester will be Chinese poetry -- Watson's Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry covers up through the 13th century, and is a really good "greatest hits" collection -- which we will discuss a bit almost every class period. I'm kind of a poetry geek: not much of a poet myself, and not a huge fan of Western poetry, but the orality and social nature of poetry in other times and parts of the world makes it fascinating social and cultural evidence. Plus, it's often quite fun, very powerful stuff. The first class was Tuesday, and I had them reading poems aloud and discussing them, something I hope we'll be doing over the rest of the semester with similar energy. Now the lumpy bits. The other three books for the course are very time-specific, and we will work through them at the appropriate moments. First is the "Axial Age" philosophers -- using Ivanhoe and Van Norden, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, which I picked up at the AHA last year (those book table giveaways really can pay off!) -- three weeks on Confucius, Mencius, Xunzi, Mozi, Laozi, Zhuangzi and Hanfeizi. I used to use the old Columbia sourcebooks, but the new editions are ... too much. Way too much stuff that I can't use, and not quite enough of the stuff that I really want. This year's text gives me about fifty pages of each of these thinkers: quite enough to discuss in depth, with some nuance and sense. I regret that I don't have an equivalently good source for the Song Neo-Confucianists, but I might photocopy the Columbia sourcebook's readings on the Wang Anshi debates, which has served me pretty well in the past. Buddhism also gets kind of short shrift, but I haven't decided how much that's a problem yet. The last two books are secondary works, and they're relatively older scholarship. This is where a really good chat with some Chinese specialist colleagues might have helped, but I think for what I'm trying to do these are good sources. First is the forty-year-old Jacques Gernet. Daily Life in China, on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. I need to do a bit more background reading on Marco Polo before we get to that one: I'd forgotten until I picked the book back up last month that Gernet cites Polo as pretty reliable. But Gernet's book is primary-source rich and nicely structured; supplemented with some good visual materials, and it'll be a great "slice of life" experience. Second, and the last thing we read, is Ray Huang's 1587, A Year of No Significance (I love that title!), which gives nice biographical sketches of officialdom from the Emperor down to "eccentric" scholar-bureaucrats, all grappling with the great (and not so great) issues of the day. The discussion of how the Imperial system is supposed to work, and how it actually does work, should be a good cap to the semester. I'm experimenting this semester with a heavily discussion-oriented class, with much less homework than I've required in the past. So most of the grade is in the tests (a few midterms, some pop quizzes, and a final), with a full 25% coming from attendance/discussion/participation. The tests may end up being essays (I often do take-home essays for finals, in particular) so writing won't go unevaluated. But I think I want to focus on reading this semester, and engagement with texts and colleagues. I hope I've picked sources that are lively enough and clear/complex enough to make that easier. So, what have you done to your syllabi this term?


Cheng-Zhu or Chengs v. Zhu?

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 10:37 pm
I didn't make a big thing of it in class, and nobody seems to have noticed the discrepancy, but there's something of a disparity between my World History textbook (Brummet, et al., Civilization: Past and Present, 11e) and my own understanding of the development of Neo-Confucianism. Now that the semester's (almost) over, I'd like to throw it open for comment. My understanding, based in no small part on the new editions of the Columbia Sourcebooks, is that Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi were largely in agreement on the matter of li [principle] and qi [essence, force, energy, etc.], but that Cheng Yi emphasized qi as the most important consideration in personal development while Cheng Hao emphasized jen [humaneness] as the key to education and moral understanding. Zhu Xi, then, while a student of both brothers, was more a follower of Cheng Yi, focusing on the function of qi; thus the term Cheng-Zhu Confucianism. Cheng Hao, on the other hand, was the progenitor of the Cheng-Lu strain, emphasizing, along with Lu Xiangshan, the unity of xin [mind, soul, heart, etc] with the Ultimate substrate of existence and the li principle. This is important particularly because it's the foundation for the development of Wang Yangming thought, which was very influential in Japan. Civilization, though, puts the Cheng brothers together as developers of li-qi theory, and claims that Zhu Xi "differed from the Chengs by ascribing greater importance to li over qi and by positing the existence of a Supreme Ultimate to which all li was connected." (304) Am I splitting hairs to see the textbook as oversimplifying to the point of error? How do you teach the Song Renaissance?

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