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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 5:25 pm Print

ASPAC 2013
Jonathan Dresner
Pittsburg State University

"But writers of fiction do not stumble onto locales or times: they choose them and they use them to serve their narrative and aesthetic ends." -- Jonathan Dresner

Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, "...flaws typical of the genre: a carefully set but very selective milieu; characters cobbled together from cultural and psychosocial fragments; wildly unlikely encounters and inappropriate behavior. Zithromax coupon, ... I don’t ever use historical fiction in my teaching, after Zithromax, Order Zithromax online c.o.d, and I rarely read it (especially in my own field!)." -- Jonathan Dresner

Roughly Chronologically:

  • Gai-jin (James Clavell, 1993): 1862-1863

  • The Apprentice (Lewis Libby, Zithromax street price, Where can i buy Zithromax online, 1996): 1903

  • The Teahouse Fire (Ellis Avery, 2006): Bakumatsu and Meiji.

  • Memoirs of a Geisha (Arthur Golden, where can i order Zithromax without prescription, Zithromax samples, 1997): subject born in 1920, lived until after WWII.

Claims of Authenticity

"GAI-JIN meaning foreigner, low dose Zithromax, Purchase Zithromax online no prescription, is set in Japan, in 1862, Zithromax pictures. Purchase Zithromax online, It is not history, but fiction, Zithromax photos. Where to buy Zithromax, Many of the happenings did occur according to historians and to books of history which, of themselves, Zithromax description, Where can i buy cheapest Zithromax online, do not necessarily always relate what truly happened. Nor is it about any real person who lived or is supposed to have lived, nor about any real company, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Kings and queens and emperors are correctly named, Zithromax cost, Zithromax images, as are a few generals and other exalted persons. Apart form these I have played with history -- the where and how and who and why and when of it -- to suit my own reality and, online buying Zithromax hcl, Zithromax from mexico, perhaps, to tell the real history of what came to pass." -- frontpiece

Author's Note:

"Memoirs of a Geisha is a novel and the character of Sayuri and her story are my own inventions, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Zithromax schedule, The historical facts of a geisha's day-to-day life in the 1930s and 1940s, however, buy Zithromax from mexico, Zithromax duration, are based on extensive research. I am indebted to one individual above all others, Zithromax for sale. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Mineko Iwasaki, one of Gion Kobu's top geisha during the 1960s and 1970s, opened her Kyoto home to me during May 1992, and corrected my misconceptions about the life of a geisha -- even though everyone I knew who had lived in Kyoto, or who lived there still, told me never to expect such candor. Fast shipping Zithromax, While brushing up on my Japanese on the airplane, I worried that Mineko, online Zithromax without a prescription, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews, whom I had not yet met, might talk with me for an hour about the weather and call it an interview, purchase Zithromax for sale. Online buy Zithromax without a prescription, Instead she took me on an insider's tour of Gion, and together with their husband, real brand Zithromax online, Cheap Zithromax, Jin, and her sisters Yaetchiyo and the late Kuniko, Zithromax pics, Buy cheap Zithromax, patiently answered my questions. Her easy familiarity with matters concerning the daily lives of geisha -- their routines, Zithromax brand name, Zithromax from canadian pharmacy, their toilette, their living arrangements, buy Zithromax from canada, Is Zithromax safe, their finances -- helped me build the foundation on which to spin a work of my own imagination. Its flaws are of course my own, Zithromax mg. I remain deeply grateful to Mineko for her assistance." (500)

"Teruko Craig was kind enough to spend hours talking with me about her life as a schoolgirl in Kyoto during the war, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Buy Zithromax without a prescription, I am grateful also to Liza Dalby, the only American woman ever to become a geisha, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, and to her excellent book, Geisha, an anthropological study of geisha culture, which also recounts her experiences in the Pontocho district; she generously lent me a number of useful Japanese and English books from her personal collection." (501)

Other sources named by Golden include: Reiko Nagura, multilingual friend. Kiharu Nakamura, geisha. Robert Singer, Japanese art expert. Bowen Dees, on Occupation experience. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Allan Palmer, tea ceremony and Japanese superstition. John Rosenfield, Japanese Art Historian at Harvard.

"A little learning is a dangerous thing"
-- Alexander Pope

Strong common elements

  • "Well, Mr. Gray. You're definitely a writer." (Monster In A Box)

  • Historical change

  • Historical causality?

  • Addressed to non-expert audiences

  • Foreign culture or modernization as intrusion ; Japanese culture as timeless

  • Religion and spirituality handled very, very poorly

  • Linguistic literalism

  • pan-Asian/Orientalist tropes

Old engineering proverb:

You can have it right.
You can have it cheap, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.
You can have it fast.
Pick two.

Dresner's corollary of Japanese historical fiction:
You can have culture.
You can have characters.
You can have historical setting.
Pick one. Two, if you're lucky.


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Now I face a difficult question of how to interpret these teachers, Buy Metronidazole Gel Without Prescription. Low dose Metronidazole Gel, How would I depict them if I was making a movie. Were they ideological machines to create an ideal nation, comprar en línea Metronidazole Gel, comprar Metronidazole Gel baratos. Purchase Metronidazole Gel, Were they the first ones to be "brain-washed" before brain-washing other populations. As soon as I put the question this way, purchase Metronidazole Gel online, Metronidazole Gel from mexico, I am urged to say "no, things must have been more complex than that." No matter how blindly nationalistic they sounded, Metronidazole Gel images, Order Metronidazole Gel no prescription,   I also see that this was out of their struggle to find a way to give their students control over their own lives. Buy Metronidazole Gel Without Prescription, In most of the cases, they found the methods that the central government advocated the most effective way. One youth school teacher in Oita Prefecture, Metronidazole Gel price, Metronidazole Gel natural, for example, argued in 1939 that becoming a hardworking and advanced farmer was the only way to survive in the increasing susceptibility of agricultural business to external factors:

農業は外界の事情に支配されることが多い。経済界の動き、自然的事情特に天候の如何によっては半年の労苦を一朝にして水泡に帰せしめることが有り勝ちだ。今日の農業は安全確実な職業とは言えなくなった。…かかる時代においては篤農家、老農、精農の手合いが次第に輝きを増してくるように感じられる。世間が押し並べて風害虫害病害にしてやられる中に一人老農は以前と農作を謳うものだ。物価は下落し農村は不況の裏に沈淪し鋏状価格差の声頻々たる中に平然として余裕ある生活をなし禍を転じて福となす者は篤農の士である。86 (下郡平治『専任教員農村青年学校の経営』東京・第一出版協会 1939、86)

I came across his writing right after reading another book which introduces a teacher in the Meiji/Taisho period who was extremely dedicated to teaching the standard pronunciation of the Japanese language to children in Akita, Metronidazole Gel wiki. Metronidazole Gel maximum dosage, The skill in the standardized Japanese, or the lack thereof, Metronidazole Gel class, Purchase Metronidazole Gel for sale, tremendously affected how young people experienced their national lives like the conscription and higher education, and still means a lot to the people from this region today, cheap Metronidazole Gel. Metronidazole Gel alternatives, It is a typical and blatant nationalizing project from historians' point of view, yet he was also providing control over life to their students in an important way, taking Metronidazole Gel. Metronidazole Gel forum, Going over these thoughts, I just realize how similar the problem of interpretations is between these teachers and intellectuals in the colonies, doses Metronidazole Gel work. Metronidazole Gel duration, Just like in the cases of colonial intellectuals, however, Metronidazole Gel mg, Buy generic Metronidazole Gel, I also wonder if it is irresponsible for me to leave them outside of my own judgment, pointing out that they were in difficult positions, Metronidazole Gel pictures. Get Metronidazole Gel, This must be a 'being a historian 101' question, but I still cannot find a comfortable solution to it, order Metronidazole Gel from United States pharmacy. About Metronidazole Gel. Where can i find Metronidazole Gel online. Order Metronidazole Gel from mexican pharmacy. Where can i buy Metronidazole Gel online. Where can i order Metronidazole Gel without prescription.

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I really didn't want to get into the discussion about James Bradley's op-ed and interview Levaquin For Sale, because it's finals season, and because the argument was so obviously wrong. Levaquin overnight, Other historians have weighed in with a fairly negative review of the argument, (( There's even a comment from D, buying Levaquin online over the counter. Buy cheap Levaquin, Giangreco that I agree with, a rare event, what is Levaquin. Levaquin pics, )) but there's a book behind it, so I suppose the discussion has to happen, online buying Levaquin. Levaquin without prescription, Eric Rauchway did a reasonably good job of taking the Americanist side against Bradley; I've been in the comments over there, arguing, Levaquin trusted pharmacy reviews, Levaquin used for, effectively, that there's a bizarre amount of reality you have to ignore to make the connection between the Portsmouth Treat and Taft-Katsura on the one hand and the Manchurian Incident and Pearl Harbor on the other, Levaquin recreational.

The presumption that Roosevelt doing something more aggressive with regard to Japan’s claims in Korea and elsewhere wouldn’t have produced the Pacific War sooner seems unlikely to me, Levaquin For Sale. Doses Levaquin work, The combination of US expansion in the Pacific (Hawaii as well as the Philippines) and anti-Japanese/anti-immigrant racism was already leading some Japanese to consider the US a likely competitor and enemy in the near future: an intransigent or pro-Russian Roosevelt would have failed to negotiate the Portsmouth treaty (against which the Japanese people rioted anyway, because there was no indemnity payment) and the US would likely have been unable to integrate Japan into the Wilsonian treaties of the ’20s, buy Levaquin no prescription, Levaquin treatment, and the military would have been even more likely to move aggressively in China and the Pacific sooner than 1931.

From both sides, Levaquin steet value, Fast shipping Levaquin, the US and Japanese, it’s hard to see what Roosevelt could have done differently, cheap Levaquin no rx, Where to buy Levaquin, even assuming that he had the ahistorical inclination to do so that would have produced a better result.

There's a satirical theme in Edge of the American West comments which routinely blames people for things that happened many, many years after or before their time, Levaquin long term. Levaquin blogs, As absurd as it is, I had to point out that some people take it way too seriously, Levaquin for sale. Buy no prescription Levaquin online, I also noted something which I'm going to have to be sure to emphasize next time I teach this, because I think it'll clarify things for students:

Nobody intervened on the side of the Chinese, online Levaquin without a prescription, Buy Levaquin without prescription, ever. Even the “Open Door policy” was pretty much a dead letter from the beginning, Levaquin forum. Levaquin description, That’s why the Japanese thought they could get away with so much: the 21 Demands make it very clear the direction things are going to go, unless the Chinese can get their acts together quickly (which they didn’t), Levaquin dosage. Levaquin dangers, This is part of what made FDR’s intervention on their behalf so infuriating: it was out of character with the 19th century paradigm, and nobody had ever made a League of Nations decision the foundation of a diplomatic relationship (there was an attempt with the Italy/Ethiopia thing, order Levaquin online c.o.d, Levaquin results, but it didn’t stick).

I don't know why people never get tired of "original sin" counterfactual arguments, but they sure don't.

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Tessa Morris-Suzuki's recent Japan Focus Buy Seroquel Without Prescription, article, "Migrants, Subjects, Citizens: Comparative Perspectives on Nationality in the Prewar Japanese Empire" is an ambitious attempt to integrate identity, legal and strategic issues related to the problem of citizenship in the context of migrations within and between empires. Seroquel forum, (( It also contains a citation to one of my own publications, which is always fun, real brand Seroquel online, Seroquel description, but it's on a minor point, and her main discussion of material related to my article comes from other sources, Seroquel gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Buy Seroquel from canada, Oh, well, where can i buy cheapest Seroquel online. Seroquel no prescription, )) The primary comparative material is to British examples, and students of "empire" as a category will find both familiar and new material to work with, low dose Seroquel. Online Seroquel without a prescription, Japan itself had such complicated migratory patterns that it really is a whole class of "comparative" study in itself. Morris-Suzuki pretty much covers the whole gamut: Japanese emigration to Hawai'i, N, Buy Seroquel Without Prescription. America, purchase Seroquel online no prescription, Where can i order Seroquel without prescription, S. America and Asia; Korean, Seroquel dose, Where can i cheapest Seroquel online, Chinese and Taiwanese migration under Japanese imperium to places within Japan and within the empire. (( She does talk about the integration of Okinawans to some extent, my Seroquel experience, Comprar en línea Seroquel, comprar Seroquel baratos, but leaves out their anomalous status after WWII. Not a complaint or a criticism, buy generic Seroquel, Rx free Seroquel, though it does raise fascinating questions. Buy Seroquel Without Prescription, There's just not enough room in the world to cover everything. ))

What makes the article particularly interesting, Seroquel duration, Seroquel from canada, aside from the valiant attempt to clarify the various legal contortions of Imperial citizenship (( and in this regard, Japan's koseki family registration system seems to be arguably simpler and more reasonable than several of the British attempts to both authorize and limit the mobility of colonial subjects )), Seroquel from canadian pharmacy, Buy Seroquel without prescription, is that it parallels some of the arguments I made in January (and June) -- that Japanese attitudes towards emigration and immigration are structured by nationalistic and imperialistic narratives which obscure important aspects and which lay the foundation for current problems with immigrant assimilation. Morris-Suzuki is taking a more legal and strategic approach, Seroquel trusted pharmacy reviews, Seroquel pharmacy, noting the various places in which the end of Japan's Empire left former colonial subjects stranded without citizenship, and the political and diplomatic problems, Seroquel schedule, Seroquel alternatives, some of which are still unresolved, and seemingly unresolvable, no prescription Seroquel online. Seroquel class, Some of these problems clearly should have been solved by the US and allies after WWII: full repatriation of Korean subjects in the Japanese home islands, Sakhalin and Manchuria, Seroquel treatment, Seroquel results, for example, would have been entirely appropriate, discount Seroquel. Generic Seroquel, Or would it. Part of me thinks that the diversity represented by Koreans in Japan should have been a good thing for leavening, a bit, Japan's self-definition as homogenous, but clearly, if it was supposed to accomplish something with regard to multi-cultural understanding, it's a gloriously failed experiment, Buy Seroquel Without Prescription. The paper almost invites counter-factual speculation: if the lines had been drawn differently, kjøpe Seroquel på nett, köpa Seroquel online, Seroquel long term, would there have been a significantly different result. Could Japan, purchase Seroquel for sale, Seroquel wiki, in the early 20th century, have developed a version of Imperial Nationalism which wasn't racialist, buying Seroquel online over the counter, Online buying Seroquel hcl, or a citizenship system which wasn't patriarchal and instrumentalist. (( there was an article in one of my regular journals recently -- AHR, what is Seroquel, Is Seroquel addictive, JAS, JJS -- which argued that Japan's Imperium forced it to adopt a more flexible definition of multicultural national identity, Seroquel online cod, but I can't remember which one and the move has obliterated any organization I had in my journals. I wasn't terribly convinced at the time, and a large part of my reservation had to do specifically with what Morris-Suzuki highlights: the rhetoric of integration was one-sided and the legal status of colonial subjects was never considered a subject for rectification. )) .

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fukuoka-jogakuin-1921.jpg Buy Lasix Without Prescription, For years private girls academy Fukuoka Jogakuin in Kyushu has been credited with first introducing in 1921 the famous sailor-style uniform worn by so many middle-school Japanese girls. However a recent investigation by a uniform manufacturer preparing an exhibit on the history of Japanese school uniforms has unearthed photographic evidence that Heian Jogakuin in Kyoto introduced a uniform with a sailor-style flap one year earlier, is Lasix safe, Lasix interactions, in 1920.

heian-jogakuin-1920.jpg The debate has heated up, Lasix description, Buy Lasix online no prescription, with both schools insisting that they were the first and that the other schools claim is invalid. At a time when declining numbers of Japanese children are forcing private schools to become increasingly cuthroat in their competition for students, Lasix gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Generic Lasix, having an awesome uniform with a storied past is seen as a way to attract students.

While it seems incontrovertable that the Kyoto school had the sailor flap first, cheap Lasix, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, their uniform was an unsightly, shapeless one-piece, my Lasix experience, Lasix dangers, where as the Fukuoka school's uniform is clearly a precursor to the style still in use today, so maybe both schools have a reasonable claim, Lasix class. Lasix trusted pharmacy reviews, Source: セーラー服:発祥論争 平安女学院VS福岡女学院 (毎日新聞)
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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 3:00 pm Print

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"Shogun" (The General, real brand Triamterene online, Purchase Triamterene, 1924), a well-known portrait of a victorious general resembling Nogi Maresuke (1849-1912), kjøpe Triamterene på nett, köpa Triamterene online, Triamterene results, the "hero" of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, is a bitter satire of a man responsible for the death of thousands, buy Triamterene from canada. Triamterene schedule, "The Story of a Head That Fell Off," set against the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, no prescription Triamterene online, What is Triamterene, is an intense cry against the absurdity of war that unfortunately remains as relevant in our barbaric twenty-first century as it was in Akutagawa's day.
.., buy Triamterene without a prescription. Ordering Triamterene online, In one brief, startling piece on the political misuse of history, rx free Triamterene, Order Triamterene from United States pharmacy, "Kin-shogun" (General Kim, 1922), is Triamterene addictive, Triamterene long term, he incorporated Korean legend into a tale concerning Hideyoshi's 1598 invasion of Korea.

I admit that most of the Japanese literature I've read was translated; I only delve into untranslated literary texts very rarely, but I do try to pay attention to what's said about literature in other contexts, Buy Triamterene Without Prescription. I'm more than a little surprised that Akutagawa's anti-war stance never came to my attention before, Triamterene class, Buy generic Triamterene, but perhaps the fact that Akutagawa died in 1927 kept him from becoming a victim of the changing political situation post-1931 and therefore kept his politics a bit under the radar. Also, Triamterene maximum dosage, Buy cheap Triamterene, satire, particularly historical satire, Triamterene trusted pharmacy reviews, Triamterene treatment, can be very tricky to translate, especially for a general readership which is unfamiliar with the issues, online buy Triamterene without a prescription, Triamterene alternatives, context or style. And literary studies often specifically exclude political history, Triamterene street price, Triamterene images, focusing on aesthetic and "cultural" elements, textual things that avoid the questions of audience and less subtle intentions, Triamterene dangers. Triamterene over the counter, It's also a bit disconcerting, because Akutagawa is one of the few early 20c authors with which our students have the slightest chance of being familiar, Triamterene steet value, Where can i buy cheapest Triamterene online, through the famous movie version -- and linguistic appropriation of the title to mean a situation of varying accounts -- of "Rashomon" (and "In a Grove", which is actually the story with the varying perspectives), cheap Triamterene no rx. Buy Triamterene Without Prescription, (( Yeah, I took a look at the Wikipedia article on Akutagawa. Triamterene interactions, It focuses quite exclusively on his more literary endeavors and views, and mentions none of the stories discussed in this article, Triamterene brand name. Online buying Triamterene, )) It would be nice to have been better informed, and I wonder if my ignorance was common among my colleagues and readers, Triamterene photos, Triamterene pharmacy, or if I just missed something obvious along the way.

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Marginalizing discourses are, of course, about Accutane, Effects of Accutane, actually intended to normalize. These are not out-groups for the sake of individuality or obtuseness, purchase Accutane, Accutane brand name, but groups trying to function within society, negotiating from positions of weakness, cheap Accutane, Where can i cheapest Accutane online, but using available leverage -- function, ideology, Accutane description, Online buying Accutane hcl, resistance -- which is considered legitimate. But there is a trend away from formal stratification, through uniformity towards equality: modernity shifts from marginalizing people to marginalizing behavior.

Maren Ehlers study of "The Koshirō of Ōno Domain: An Outcast Organization within Domain Society" made a strong case that hinin in small communities were both socially oppressed but also socially useful, and that they could leverage their position into new privileges as the needs of domain society shifted their functions, Buy Accutane Without Prescription. Their status within the community was clearly marked, Accutane mg, Order Accutane from United States pharmacy, but restrictions were often ignored due to the nature of small-town life. She presented a particularly interesting case where the Koshirō were asked to take on duties as executioners in exchange for new privileges (right to wear short swords, Accutane dosage, Accutane pharmacy, plus a stipend), even though those privileges were protested by commoners, Accutane wiki, Accutane cost, but eventually the Koshirō asked to be relieved of those new privileges and the duties that went with them, on the grounds that it lowered their status to be associated with traditional eta work, Accutane pictures. Online Accutane without a prescription, This reinforces the argument Botsman makes in Punishment and Power: that the outcaste groups actively negotiated their status and function, from a weak but not powerless position due to their state functions, order Accutane online overnight delivery no prescription. Buy Accutane online cod, Maren's dissertation is on poverty relief, and ought to add a nice new dimension to our understanding of the functions of government in the Early Modern era, Accutane without prescription.

Buy Accutane Without Prescription, Hiraku Shimoda's "Making and Unmaking a Cautionary Tale: Aizu Domian in Imperial Historical Discourse" was a fascinating look at how partisans of the Shogunal Loyalist domain reshaped the history of the Restoration wars with the collusion of central authorities who wanted to construct a uniform national narrative of Imperial service. Comprar en línea Accutane, comprar Accutane baratos, I was quite taken with the way in which the former rebels were redeemed through a -- largely fanciful and ahistorical -- narrative of a nation in which everyone sought the greater good and were loyal to the same transcendant sovereign, even when they were shooting at each other, Accutane from canadian pharmacy. Order Accutane no prescription, Hiraku's larger work on regional identity will certainly be essential reading for those of us doing local history, and for those of you who haven't yet taken it seriously enough!

Eiko Maruko's chronicled two episodes in "Violence as a Discursive Weapon: Diet Politics in the 1950s" both of which involved Socialist v, online buying Accutane. Accutane pics, LDP clashes. Both parties claimed the mantle of "Defenders of democracy": the LDP claimed that the Socialists were trying to impose a minority will by violence, kjøpe Accutane på nett, köpa Accutane online, Accutane over the counter, invoking the recent past; the Socialists claimed that the LDP were trying to steamroll minorities with an uncompromising majoritarianism which they likened to fascism. The LDP called on security forces (especially in the 1958 case) and successfully cast the Socialists as the aggressors, as an immature group in a maturing democratic society, Buy Accutane Without Prescription. These clashes were, Accutane schedule, Buy generic Accutane, in a sense, precursors to the 1960 Security Treaty conflicts, Accutane long term, Accutane australia, uk, us, usa, but Eiko didn't go into that. Her larger project on political violence from the Bakumatsu to the Ampo Riots ought to be a solid attention-grabber for undergrads, australia, uk, us, usa, Buy Accutane without prescription, as well as adding a very interesting dimension to the whole modernity/democracy discussion. (( I love the way in which it completely ignores conventional periodization, buy Accutane from canada, too. ))

There's so much to look forward to in the next few years, in terms of what we're going to be reading and what we can teach from.


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As I mentioned here and here Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, , I had some great discussions about the question of diaspora at ASPAC. The dividing line between Asian studies and Asian American studies is starting to blur, and I think that's going to be very productive. Tetracycline duration,

That was actually one of the main points of Jane H. Yamashiro's lively talk on "The Japanese Diaspora?: Rethinking connections between people of Japanese ancestry": that disciplinary boundary-crossing is productive, but that the very different origins, political and disciplinary stances of Asian Studies and Asian American Studies raise problems, after Tetracycline. Fundamentally, each views the question from a very different place, Canada, mexico, india, with a center of focus that affects the kind of issues which are possible to study and discuss. One example of the problem is in terminology: are people of Japanese ancestry who go to Japan "return migrants" or "foreigners" or "going to the homeland", Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription. This is precisely what Yamashiro studies: the experience of Japanese Americans constructing a new identity as they live long-term in Japan, but the very naming of such an experience prefigures some of the answer: how can a first-time visit be a "return" unless identity is more ancestral than individual. And she explicitly rejects the term "diaspora" because, purchase Tetracycline for sale, she argues, it fixes the center of the Japanese American experience in Japan instead of in America. Order Tetracycline from United States pharmacy,

Yamashiro cited Stewart Hall's two definitions of culture -- as a form of continuity (( "one true self, a common understanding, an unchanging reference frame in which differences are recent and superficial )) or as a historical becoming (( shared experience of devleopment, the "play" of history, Tetracycline price, coupon, culture and power, open-ended and vulnerable to change )) -- then argued that these are not part of a binary dilemma (( I have "of course" in my notes, Generic Tetracycline, though as an historian I have a bias towards the second definition )), but are rather positions which the individual migrants use and integrate with their experiences. Individual migrants, in other words, Tetracycline dangers, sometimes emphasize the ancestral nature of culture (Asian-ness as race came up here) and sometimes emphasize the civilizational (language, especially), Buy cheap Tetracycline, but rarely cleave to just one definition during the re-migration experience. Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, Which concept dominates the experience depends a great deal on previous exposure to the culture of origin: generational position, mainland US v. Hawai'i, and prior expectations all play a big role in self-definition during the experience.

Over the next few days, Tetracycline coupon, Jane and I continued to have a discussion about whether "diaspora" was a useful term or not. Her view, Tetracycline description, as I understand it, is that the term is too widely used without a clear definition to be useful as a category of analysis. My view, as I understand it, Tetracycline recreational, is that the term isn't really being used as a category of analysis, but a descriptive shorthand for processes which are still being fleshed out in the literature, Tetracycline canada, mexico, india, and that previous attempts to create analytic categories have previously produced a complete breakdown of communication. (( I'm think of the life-cycle of "feudalism" as the ur-term: the precise definitions created in Western European history; the attempts to overlay that definition on Asian histories; the seemingly endless debate about "kinds" of feudalism and whether they "really are" feudalism; the gradual abandonment of the term (even in Europe) as more descriptive and complex histories emerge; the lingering footnote skirmishes; the purging of the term from scholarship, then titles, then textbooks; the realization that we now have no general term for a broad swath of human history and the gradual recovery of a minimal use of the term..., Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription. to be continued )) But she insisted that using the term without defining it, at least in a minimal fashion, is intellectually irresponsible, Tetracycline steet value, and I have some sympathy for that position. Fundamentally, Where can i cheapest Tetracycline online, my feeling is that the question of definition goes to a divide -- cultural or methodological, I'm not sure -- between sociologists and historians.

On the last day of the conference, Jane very kindly gave me a photocopy of an article by Rogers Brubaker which takes a position very similar to her own, comprar en línea Tetracycline, comprar Tetracycline baratos. ((Rogers Burbaker, "The 'diaspora' diaspora, Doses Tetracycline work, " Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, 28, No. 1 (January 2005), pp, Tetracycline interactions. 1-19. It's not in any of the full-text databases on my campus, Real brand Tetracycline online, but here's the publisher link. )) Brubaker provides quite a collection of references arguing that the reification of the term has become problematic

Diasporas are treated as 'bona fide actual entities' and cast as unitary actors. They are seen as possessing countable, quantifiable memberships, Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription. ... Enumerations such as this suggest that discussions of diaspora opportunistically combine elements of strong and weak definitions, Tetracycline treatment. Strong definitions are used to emphasize the distinctiveness of diaspora as a social force; weak definitions to emphasize numbers (and thereby the import of the phenomenon). (pp. Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, 10-11, citations removed)

He goes on to argue that the term is fundamentally political:
As a category of practice, 'diaspora' is used to make claims, to articulate porjects, to forumulate expectations, to mobilize energies, to appeal to loyalties. Tetracycline use, It is often a category with strong normative change. It does not so much describe the world as seek to remake it. (p. 12, Tetracycline images, emphasis in original)

As a result, of course, What is Tetracycline, we should abandon the term as a unit of analysis, or else define it in a precise fashion and limit our discussions of diaspora to those that can be meaningfully compared. Brubaker does provide a definition -- dispersion, homeland orientation, and boundary-maintenance -- though he also makes it clear that these are common understandings and that all of these components have been severely stressed in the process of expanding the use of the term from early "paradigmatic" and "classical" diasporas (( Now often refered to as "catastrophic" or "victim" diasporas, and "mobilized" or "trading" diasporas )) to newer "long distance nationalist" diasporas and "labour migrants who maintain (to some degree) emotional and social ties with a homeland" (p, Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription. 2). These reasonably well-defined categories have "attenuated" to include transnational linguistic and religious communities, cheap Tetracycline, assimilated ethnic emigrants, and even "putative ethnocultural or country-defined diasporas" (p. Australia, uk, us, usa, 3, where he finally mentions the Japanese) and cultural/regional/functional communties. (( including Southerners, Yankees, Tetracycline street price, various political and religious sub-groups, non-heterosexuals, Buy Tetracycline without a prescription, the deaf and terrorists. ))

Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, This is where I realized the problem. It's not that sociologists like definitions and historians don't, though I do think historians tend more towards description and less towards comparison-oriented categorization. More to the point, buy Tetracycline without prescription, 'diaspora' as Brubaker describes it is a static category of the present; For diaspora as I study it is a process in which the definitional slippages which Brubaker notes (up to a point) are a result of the variety of choices made by migrating peoples. I would define it as an outward migration producing communities in multiple locations with some degree of multi-directional communication and intercourse. Tetracycline price, I'm leaving off the boundary-maintenance/assimilation binary entirely, because either cultural enclaves or integration can be results of emigration, and in most cases I can think of, both happen to some extent, where can i buy cheapest Tetracycline online. Most importantly, diaspora isn't a thing at one point in time, but the development of a population across boundaries over time; when I speak of "the Japanese Diaspora," I don't mean "Japanese-descent groups in Brazil, Hawai'i and North America today" but rather "the dispersion of Japanese from Japan to other countries and colonial territories, resulting in an expanded sense of Japanese community and ongoing cultural and personal connections." (( By this definition, actually, you could argue that the Japanese diaspora ended at the end of WWII, Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription. I'm not prepared to argue that yet, but it's an issue. Order Tetracycline online c.o.d, )) In a historical sense, I'd say that diaspora is not the community which results from migration, but is the migration itself, and as long as people continue to move -- with or without a homeland, Tetracycline schedule, but at least within the diasporic communities -- then the diaspora exists. (( this definition is pretty limiting for sociological use, Where can i buy Tetracycline online, though I get the impression that sociologists wouldn't mind having a narrow definition for analytical purposes )) After movement with in the diaspora largely ceases, then what you have are immigrants, not members of a diaspora. I'm loath to get too deep into this, order Tetracycline online overnight delivery no prescription, though: too precise a definition just leads to "is it or isn't it" questions which are unproductive; I'm more inclined to an intuitive "is it like this or like that" comparative process based on rich description than I am to a taxonomy of migration, diaspora, Buy Tetracycline from canada, transnationalism and identity which sucks energy out of the investigative process.

Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, Speaking of rich description, I also enjoyed the presentation on Japanese migrants in the Philippines which put a cap on the session in which I presented. (( there was also a talk on Japanese neo-nationalism which seemed pretty basic, and a discussion of the intersection between Philipine national and religious narratives and political turmoil, particularly the role of martyrdom and resistance, herbal Tetracycline. )) Frederico V. Magdalena's "Dabao-kuo and the Construction of the Philippine State" was a fantastic case study of a very obscure chapter in Japan's pre-WWII history. Fast shipping Tetracycline, Japanese workers began to be recruited for road-building labor in the Davao region of the Mindanao island in the Philipine archipelago in 1903. At that point, Mindanao was a largely unintegrated region of the Philipines, with indigenous populations but little central government control; also at this point the US had recently taken over from the Spanish, and had only recently brought the Philipine rebellion to a close, Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription. By 1918 there were ten thousand Japanese settlers working over half the abaca plantations in the Davao region. By 1939 there were eighteen thousand, and their farms accounted for four-fifths of Davao abaca, Tetracycline from mexico, almost half of the abaca exports from the Philipines; they also produced all the export lumber and half the coconuts, as well as operating over half the powered fishing boats (( most of the tuna they caught was exported to Japan )). Get Tetracycline, By that point the Japanese in Davao had constructed over three hundred kilometers of roads, and paid between a half and two-thirds of the taxes from Davao. This was a very successful diaspora community.

By the 1930s, both US administrators (including Governor-General Theodore Roosevelt, Tetracycline samples, Jr.!) and Philipine leaders were sounding the alarm about Japanese colonization in Davao; while some of it was pretty overblown, it's worth noting -- as the talk title suggests -- that the term Dabao-kuo was used by the Japanese in Davao, and the reference to Manchukuo was deliberate. Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription, Philipine and American writers also made reference to the Japanese colonial expansions in Korea, Taiwan, and the Asian mainland. From the mid-1930s on there were concerted efforts to bring settlers down from Luzon and Visayas, including Christian-organized missions and government-supported agricultural settlements. The "Filipinization" movement was fairly successful -- by the late '30s, Christians were a plurality over natives and Japanese -- and helped to inspire the growth of a stronger nationalistic identity among Philipinos. The end of WWII devastated the Japanese community: those who weren't killed by locals at the end of the war were repatriated, leaving behind thousands of local spouses and mixed children. Their descendants were discriminated against for decades, but by the 1990s a "Nikkeijin movement" began to arise, and interest in Japanese connections has grown with the availability of Nikkei visas. Some five thousand -- out of an estimated eighty thousand -- nikkei Mindanaoans have gone back to Japan at this point, at least for a short stay, Buy Tetracycline Without Prescription.

Is the Japanese-descent population in the Philipines part of the Japanese diaspora. I think the answer depends on what direction you're looking at it from. In the Philipines, I'd say that it was not really a community so much as an ethnicity, nor did it have connections to other Japanese-descent groups; it was largely immobile. From the perspective of the Japanese, though, who believe in nationality by blood rather than by culture, the Davaoan group remained a part of the Japanese diaspora, so that when it opened its doors to remigration, they were included. (( I'm going to be exploring this dichotomy further in the near future. )) And from the standpoint of a historian, the movement to Davao was part of the great diaspora, but largely stopped being part of it after 1945.


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AHA Blogging Day One: Between Naps

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 11:20 pm Print
They call it a "red eye flight" for a reason. I really hope that none of the panelists at "Unstable Bodies, Unsettled Movements: Sport, Performance and Nation in Japan" took my nodding off personally: I really did want to hear what they had to say. (If anyone went to the Historians in Public roundtable and wants to share, I'd be grateful, by the way: that was my second choice.)

Aside from hearing the panelists, I got to meet not one, but two of my fellow Frog-bloggers: Dennis Frost, who was on the panel, and Michael Wert, who was in the audience with me. Tomorrow I get to hang out with Cliopatriots (being emeritoid, myself) and find out who won the Clios for last year! I love it.

The panel really was interesting, more so than I -- who can be a bit skeptical of cultural studies type topics -- was expecting. Our own Dr. Frost (congratulations!) talked about the remarkably career and tragic death of Kinue Hitomi, and how public discourse around her career and death both highlighted "woman problem" anxieties and also gave a huge boost to sports medicine, and to the medicalization of women's issues. The incompetence and perfidy of her Mainichi Shinbun boss and supposed sports doctor Kinoshita deserves special mention: it takes a huge dose of chutzpah to claim on the one hand that there was no medical connection between Kinue's competitions, her gender, and her death, and on the other that what's needed for women athletes is more sports medicine (in spite of the fact that having a doctor along didn't help her one bit).

Following the theme of self-contradicting dicta, Rebecca Nickerson talked about women's physical education scholar and advocate Fujimura Toyo, who apparently blamed the poor health and posture of her contemporaries (she was active in the Taisho era, mostly) on bunmei (civilization) and incompetent physical education programs. She was particularly down on tight-obi'd kimono -- which she considered an aspect of a distinctively Japanese modernity, along with physical education and compulsory classroom attendance -- arguing that the Genroku-style loose obi and a healthy rural lifestyle -- Ainu were considered very healthy, apparently -- were the key to proper posture and health. Looser, western style clothes and moderate western style calisthenics were her keys to a uniquely Japanese healthy women's lifestyle..... I was struck by the parallels to the agrarian nationalists of the same time period, who create a sort of fantastical idyllic, authentic and pre-modern past, then invoke the instruments of modernity and Westernization to try to force society back into that shape.

Paul Droubie's talk on the scientification of athletic training in the run up to the 1964 Tokyo Olympics raised all kinds of great issues. That the program was partially successful (16 golds, but blanks in track and swimming) raised hackles, mostly by those who were in favor of better and more "scientific" methods. He argued that application of those technical methods of improvement to normal people would be sharply resisted, but athletes, in their capacity as national representatives, do not entirely own their bodies and as such were "fair game."

Finally, Valerie Barske presented a great wealth of material on the use and abuse of Ryukyuan dance to construct Okinawan identity, from the Edo period up to the "Wakanatsu Kokutai" event celebrating the reversion of Okinawa (half of it, anyway) to Japanese control in 1973. The most surprising section, to me, was the way in which the US admnistration in Okinawa used (and dramatically altered) Ryukyuan dances to bolster Ryukyuan identity, presumably to reduce the sense of connection to Japan and create a stronger case for continued stewardship. The Okinawans then turned that around in 1973 to use their traditional and modernized dances to present themselves as politically unified and equal to the rest of Japan, while culturally and ethnically distinct.

At least, I'm pretty sure that's what they were talking about! Any errors I'll chalk up to jet-lag, and my co-bloggers can correct me (and fill me in on the post-paper discussion, which I missed entirely) at their leisure. I rounded out the day with Fish and Chips (They were fantastic, but I better get some BBQ soon!), and now it's time to rest up for tomorrow's adventures.



皆さん、はじめまして。斉川貴嗣(Saikawa Takashi)と申します。 ずいぶん前にローソンさんからこのブログへお誘いいただいていたのですが、ここ1、2ヶ月忙しくしておりましたので書き込みが遅れました。これからは積極的に参加していきたいと思いますので、どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 まずは簡単な自己紹介。現在、早稲田大学大学院政治学研究科の学生(博士課程)です。専門は国際関係論なのですが、理論研究ではなく歴史研究を行なっています。具体的には、両大戦間期に活動を展開した知的協力国際委員会(International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation)を研究対象としています。この委員会は、1922年に国際連盟の一機関として設立され、当時の世界的な知識人が数多く参加しました。教育交流、文化交流など現在で言えば国際交流を実践した機関で、その理念や活動は今のユネスコに継承されています。私としては、この委員会に非西洋諸国の知識人や政府がどのように関わったのかということに興味があり、特に当時の日本と中国の関与を調べています。日本では新渡戸稲造、田中館愛橘、姉崎正治、中国では呉稚暉、林語堂などの知識人が関わっていて、これら人々の思想研究も行なうつもりです。先月から今月にかけて4週間ほど、ジュネーブの国際連盟アーカイブスに研究調査に行ってきました。結構面白い史料が見つかりましたので、早いうちに何らかのかたちで成果を示すことができればと考えています。 というわけで、私は決して日本史のプロパーではないのですが、皆さんからいろいろ勉強させていただいて、また私が皆さんのお役に立つことがあれば幸いです。

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