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6/8/2013

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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 5:25 pm Print

ASPAC 2013
Jonathan Dresner
Pittsburg State University

"But writers of fiction do not stumble onto locales or times: they choose them and they use them to serve their narrative and aesthetic ends." -- Jonathan Dresner

Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, "...flaws typical of the genre: a carefully set but very selective milieu; characters cobbled together from cultural and psychosocial fragments; wildly unlikely encounters and inappropriate behavior. Zithromax coupon, ... I don’t ever use historical fiction in my teaching, after Zithromax, Order Zithromax online c.o.d, and I rarely read it (especially in my own field!)." -- Jonathan Dresner

Roughly Chronologically:


  • Gai-jin (James Clavell, 1993): 1862-1863

  • The Apprentice (Lewis Libby, Zithromax street price, Where can i buy Zithromax online, 1996): 1903

  • The Teahouse Fire (Ellis Avery, 2006): Bakumatsu and Meiji.

  • Memoirs of a Geisha (Arthur Golden, where can i order Zithromax without prescription, Zithromax samples, 1997): subject born in 1920, lived until after WWII.

Claims of Authenticity

"GAI-JIN meaning foreigner, low dose Zithromax, Purchase Zithromax online no prescription, is set in Japan, in 1862, Zithromax pictures. Purchase Zithromax online, It is not history, but fiction, Zithromax photos. Where to buy Zithromax, Many of the happenings did occur according to historians and to books of history which, of themselves, Zithromax description, Where can i buy cheapest Zithromax online, do not necessarily always relate what truly happened. Nor is it about any real person who lived or is supposed to have lived, nor about any real company, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Kings and queens and emperors are correctly named, Zithromax cost, Zithromax images, as are a few generals and other exalted persons. Apart form these I have played with history -- the where and how and who and why and when of it -- to suit my own reality and, online buying Zithromax hcl, Zithromax from mexico, perhaps, to tell the real history of what came to pass." -- frontpiece

Author's Note:

"Memoirs of a Geisha is a novel and the character of Sayuri and her story are my own inventions, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Zithromax schedule, The historical facts of a geisha's day-to-day life in the 1930s and 1940s, however, buy Zithromax from mexico, Zithromax duration, are based on extensive research. I am indebted to one individual above all others, Zithromax for sale. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Mineko Iwasaki, one of Gion Kobu's top geisha during the 1960s and 1970s, opened her Kyoto home to me during May 1992, and corrected my misconceptions about the life of a geisha -- even though everyone I knew who had lived in Kyoto, or who lived there still, told me never to expect such candor. Fast shipping Zithromax, While brushing up on my Japanese on the airplane, I worried that Mineko, online Zithromax without a prescription, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews, whom I had not yet met, might talk with me for an hour about the weather and call it an interview, purchase Zithromax for sale. Online buy Zithromax without a prescription, Instead she took me on an insider's tour of Gion, and together with their husband, real brand Zithromax online, Cheap Zithromax, Jin, and her sisters Yaetchiyo and the late Kuniko, Zithromax pics, Buy cheap Zithromax, patiently answered my questions. Her easy familiarity with matters concerning the daily lives of geisha -- their routines, Zithromax brand name, Zithromax from canadian pharmacy, their toilette, their living arrangements, buy Zithromax from canada, Is Zithromax safe, their finances -- helped me build the foundation on which to spin a work of my own imagination. Its flaws are of course my own, Zithromax mg. I remain deeply grateful to Mineko for her assistance." (500)

"Teruko Craig was kind enough to spend hours talking with me about her life as a schoolgirl in Kyoto during the war, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Buy Zithromax without a prescription, I am grateful also to Liza Dalby, the only American woman ever to become a geisha, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, and to her excellent book, Geisha, an anthropological study of geisha culture, which also recounts her experiences in the Pontocho district; she generously lent me a number of useful Japanese and English books from her personal collection." (501)


Other sources named by Golden include: Reiko Nagura, multilingual friend. Kiharu Nakamura, geisha. Robert Singer, Japanese art expert. Bowen Dees, on Occupation experience. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Allan Palmer, tea ceremony and Japanese superstition. John Rosenfield, Japanese Art Historian at Harvard.

"A little learning is a dangerous thing"
-- Alexander Pope

Strong common elements


  • "Well, Mr. Gray. You're definitely a writer." (Monster In A Box)

  • Historical change

  • Historical causality?

  • Addressed to non-expert audiences

  • Foreign culture or modernization as intrusion ; Japanese culture as timeless

  • Religion and spirituality handled very, very poorly

  • Linguistic literalism

  • pan-Asian/Orientalist tropes

Old engineering proverb:

You can have it right.
You can have it cheap, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.
You can have it fast.
Pick two.

Dresner's corollary of Japanese historical fiction:
You can have culture.
You can have characters.
You can have historical setting.
Pick one. Two, if you're lucky.

.

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9/20/2012

Clomid For Sale

Clomid For Sale, NYT reporter Nick Kristof brought in a guest blogger, Han-Yi Shaw of Taiwan, to examine some new mid-Meiji documentation about Japan's relationship with the contested Senkaku/Daiyou islands. The core of Shaw's findings is

the Meiji government acknowledged Chinese ownership of the islands back in 1885.

After several abortive attempts to survey the islands, Clomid wiki, Clomid steet value, the Japanese government declared them incorporated Japanese territory during the Sino-Japanese war, despite recognizing that it should have been negotiated with China, Clomid trusted pharmacy reviews. Clomid mg, As territory seized in 1895, it should have been reverted to China in 1945, Clomid from mexico, Clomid treatment, but for a variety of reasons, including an administrative shift of the islands from Taiwan to Okinawa prefecture, purchase Clomid online, Buy cheap Clomid, it remained outside of negotiations until a few years later.

It's a reasonably persuasive presentation, is Clomid safe, Clomid coupon, historically, though I don't think that these details are going to shift Japanese nationalists, Clomid photos, Buy Clomid without prescription, even mild or moderate ones, to support politicians who would abandon Japan's claim to these useless rocks which sit in such valuable territory, Clomid images. Comprar en línea Clomid, comprar Clomid baratos, And as long as there's no particular cost to maintaining the claim -- Chinese hostility to Japan is not predicated on this issue sufficiently that abandoning the claim would eliminate anti-Japanese sentiment as a nationalist motivational tool of the mainland regime -- it seems unlikely that anything will change, except a few American lectures, where can i order Clomid without prescription. Australia, uk, us, usa,

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11/27/2011

Aricept For Sale

Aricept For Sale, For a little entertainment this Thanksgiving, I read Andrew Rankin's Seppuku: A History of Samurai Suicide (Kodansha, 2011). (( It helps to have friends who are journal editors: my colleague at Midwest Quarterly passed it on to see if it was worth a review, where can i find Aricept online, Aricept from canadian pharmacy, shortly before the journal gave up reviewing. )) Since I'm teaching both Samurai and Early Japan this semester, buy Aricept no prescription, Buy Aricept online no prescription, seemed like a good supplemental read, and this is the first thing resembling a lull I've had all semester, kjøpe Aricept på nett, köpa Aricept online. Aricept brand name, This is an attractive little book, substantially researched, what is Aricept, Aricept trusted pharmacy reviews, but not much of a history. It's more like a miscellany, Aricept mg, Aricept duration, a collection of materials in search of a thesis.

Japan - 17c late Full suit ArmorAndrew Rankin is a graduate student in literature, specializing in Mishima Yukio: no wonder then, that he has collected materials on extremes of samurai culture, though Mishima is conspicuous by his almost-total absence from this work, Aricept For Sale. (( Three references, buying Aricept online over the counter, Aricept wiki, mostly directed at the presentation of suicide in his writing, and one brief mention of the Mishima's own "anachronistic seppuku suicide." (18) The Satsuma uprising is also missing, Aricept natural, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, except for its role in General Nogi's own anachronistic death. )) Mishima is the subtext, Aricept from canada, Aricept price, though, as the entire work is dominated by discourses of aesthetics and authenticity, buy cheap Aricept no rx, Is Aricept addictive, without the complications of anthropological or historical theory, economics or historical context, online Aricept without a prescription. Doses Aricept work, Thus you get sentences like: "Their chief aspiration, in its psychological essence, Aricept no rx, Purchase Aricept online no prescription, was to realize the perennial samurai fantasy of inviolable rectitude and fearless self-sacrifice culminating in sanguinary apotheosis." (197) While Rankin acknowledges changes in practice over time, the view of samurai culture is anachronistic and stands little close scrutiny, buy no prescription Aricept online. Where can i buy Aricept online, Too bad, because even within the realm of performative aesthetics, Aricept used for, Get Aricept, there's a fascinating set of problems on display here that deserve serious thought.

Japanese Dolls Warrior 2While academics are often accused of bibliography-dumping Aricept For Sale, on our younger colleagues, that Kodansha would publish a footnoted, bibliography-laden book on samurai culture without references to Eiko Ikegami, Thomas Conlan or Paul Varley -- to pick the first three that I looked for and didn't find -- seems a bit haphazard. This book could be an interesting counterpoint to Ikegami, purchase Aricept for sale, Aricept street price, in particular, because of her focus on the tensions between control and individual self-expression around the warrior class, discount Aricept, Aricept for sale, but without any engagement or thesis statement, this work remains frustratingly aloof, buy Aricept from canada. Aricept results, What this book does reasonably well is present nearly-raw materials on the stomach-cutting suicide practice, how it evolved from an exceptional display to a tradition, Aricept samples, Buy Aricept from mexico, then to a routinized procedure and finally to a romantic gesture in the Bakumatsu-Meiji era, where it stops, Aricept description. Aricept steet value, This process is as close as the book comes to a thesis, though "point of view" might be closer, australia, uk, us, usa. Herbal Aricept, There are two substantive chapters chronicling this evolution. separated by one on the procedure of the mature seppuku ritual of the Tokugawa era, Aricept For Sale. All of these chapters are more episodic than coherently narrative, Aricept price, coupon, Aricept forum, focusing on individual events selected, as near as I can tell, for cultural impact or typicality: Well over half the book is short prose portraits of seppuku events and their ilk. There's a great deal of interesting stuff here, details and terminology that will liven up lectures and spur the imaginations of historical novelists. There's also a sort of epilogue, called "Paradigms" which is a collection of primary source quotations... well, it starts as primary source quotations, chronological, then Westerners and 20th century Japanese views start to slip in, material which was never addressed in the rest of the work. My favorite bit from that section is the "Death poem of Kanzawa Toko (1795)"

Aricept For Sale, Death poems
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It feels incomplete. Not just because I'm a scholar and I want analysis and counterarguments. But because the book doesn't even hold together to the standards of a popular history. Despite the example above, the prose is mostly fine, though the endless progression of stomach-cutting does get to be a bit much: there aren't enough synonyms, though Rankin doesn't resort to euphemisms, which is good. While there's great value in a detailed examination of a powerful social and cultural phenomenon like this, there should be some conclusion, some cohesion, which is just lacking.

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5/18/2010

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Filed under: — K. M. Lawson @ 2:09 pm Print

In April I made a short posting Buy Colchicine Without Prescription, about an interesting work of fiction from 1907, called Death Trap by R. Online buying Colchicine hcl, W. Cole (( Brett from airminded.org points out in a comment to that posting that Cole also wrote a book that posits the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon empire into space, Colchicine photos. Buy Colchicine online no prescription, Read more about this over at his blog.)) that depicts a future German invasion of Britain that is repulsed only thanks to the valiant efforts of the Japanese military.

Thanks to the wonderful marvel that is inter-library loan, Colchicine pictures, Colchicine cost, one of the Hampshire County Libraries in England was kind enough to loan Widener library its copy of the 1907 book long enough for me to take a quick peek at it this afternoon and scan the pages from the end of the book which depicts the Japanese liberation of an occupied Britain. Since the book is no longer protected by copyright, if you are interested, you can download my quick scans from the book as a PDF here, Buy Colchicine Without Prescription. ((I scanned the title page, Colchicine street price, Colchicine used for, the first chapter, and then the last few chapters from around where the first mention I noticed of the Japanese, buy cheap Colchicine. Kjøpe Colchicine på nett, köpa Colchicine online, ))

Reading the original I find this to be a really wonderful example of a widespread admiration for Japan found throughout the world in the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese war. At the climax of Cole's novel, where can i cheapest Colchicine online, Purchase Colchicine for sale, when the Germans had "almost achieved their purpose of crushing England to submission," and mobs of desperate civilians "paraded the streets of north and east London crying for peace at any price, buying Colchicine online over the counter, Colchicine schedule, " (( p. 273 )) there are suddenly sounds of artillery coming from the Kent coast, purchase Colchicine. Buy Colchicine Without Prescription, The Germans react with concern, determine that the Japanese have arrived, but are confident of ultimate victory. Colchicine price, A massive naval battle ensues between the Germans and Russians on one side, with the British and Japanese on the other, Colchicine for sale. Canada, mexico, india, "Several ships were missing from the Russian and German squadrons, for the Japanese torpedo-boats had delivered attacks of unsurpassed audacity and skill the previous night." Though the fleets were equally matched, Colchicine forum, Purchase Colchicine online no prescription,

"The Germans and Russians fought like heroes, but the strategy of the Japanese admiral, where to buy Colchicine, Colchicine used for, who stood with folded arms directing the battle from his conning tower, was superior to theirs, Colchicine trusted pharmacy reviews. Is Colchicine safe, Hours passed. The little yellow man still calmly gave his orders and watched the battle, Colchicine from canada. Ships were battered by shells, rammed, sunk and torpedoed, Buy Colchicine Without Prescription. Herbal Colchicine, But the yellow men were triumphant everywhere, and soon their enemies' ships floated as useless hulks upon the waves..." (( p, effects of Colchicine. Colchicine pics, 278 ))
Shortly thereafter, "thousands of Japanese army officers landed at Liverpool...All were ready to take over their commands at once, low dose Colchicine, Taking Colchicine, and at the head of all were field-marshals who had fought in Manchuria. Almost every member of this vast array of officers had seen service in the Russo-Japanese War."

Despite the fact that the Japanese are described as "little yellow men" Cole repeatedly returns to compliment them on their intelligence and skill, order Colchicine no prescription. Colchicine from mexico, It is the German army which is described as, "raw hordes of half-trained men" (( p282 )) and the British military forces are merely the frontline soldiers who are commanded by their more superior Japanese leaders, Colchicine no rx, Colchicine duration, as Cole writes, "The presence of innumerable Japanese officers of all ranks in the British amateur army had greatly improved its value." Even before the final clash of armies in the British countryside, buy Colchicine online no prescription, Where can i buy Colchicine online, "parties of British infantry and cavalry under Japanese officers were always dropping down from apparently nowhere, and cutting off stragglers, Colchicine street price, Colchicine images, intercepting ammunition and commissariat wagons, sometimes even firing on the artillery trains." (( p, buy Colchicine from mexico. 283 ))

This is again shown in the description of the final battle:

Buy Colchicine Without Prescription, "At last the armies met, and the Germans went into action confident of victory. Buy Colchicine online cod, But they were roughly undeceived, for although the rank and file were weak and ineffective, buy Colchicine without prescription, the Japanese officers were far superior in dash and science to the Kaiser's. After all, the strength of an army lies in its brains, and the British and their Japanese allies had both brains and numbers." (( p. 284 ))
When the battle went badly, the Germans attempted to retreat and escape from "this Hell of anguish and defeat. But the doors were already closed by British troops led by skilful Japanese." (( p. 297 ))

When the Germans had been surrounded, the British and Japanese victors exacted severe peace terms on a shocked Kaiser, Buy Colchicine Without Prescription. However, "the final victory gave [Britain] little satisfaction, for it was universally known that it was due to the highly-skilled aid of Japan, and not to the martial prowess of the British." (( p. 311 )) As would be happen in reality only a decade after this novel was published, Germany lost its imperial possessions, Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. This humiliating fate was "all wrought by the despised yellow monkeys from the Far East." (( p. 311 ))

A novel like this is only one of many publications in the first few decades of the twentieth century that are filled with admiration for Japan, its martial culture, and its rapid industrialization. Already here though we see a depiction of the Japanese that would endure in future wars: the emphasis on a contrast between their diminutive stature and the supposed fact that they are essentially an usually gifted and intelligent people, or in the words of one German officer in the novel, "Those Japanese are very clever." (( p. 277 )).

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5/12/2010

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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 12:39 am Print

Metronidazole Gel For Sale, Final exams crash onto my desk tomorrow, but I'm as organized as I can be in advance, so I thought I'd do a little belated AAS blogging, especially about the pair of panels on Saturday commemorating the centennial of Japan's annexation of Korea and the 50th anniversary of Hilary Conroy's groundbreaking study of same. Purchase Metronidazole Gel online, The Reconsidering panel chaired by my old friend Hyung-gu Lynn covered a good variety of disciplinary perspectives, not to mention being equally split between Korean and Japanese panelists, Metronidazole Gel gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. No prescription Metronidazole Gel online, The focus was on the Protectorate era Lynn characterized the papers as demonstrating an "agnostic, open-ended committment to history" rather than the sort of "methodological nationalism" which often dominates conversations on this era, Metronidazole Gel treatment. Buy cheap Metronidazole Gel, The most striking presentation, I thought, Metronidazole Gel pharmacy, Buy cheap Metronidazole Gel no rx, was Toyomi Asano's discussion of Ito Hirobumi's Resident-General-ship and the legal reforms and proposals of that period. Asano argued that Ito's proposal of a federation-style annexation and elimination of extraterritoriality rights for Japanese residents in Korea suggests that the colonial occupation of Korea was not a foregone conclusion; ultimately, Metronidazole Gel description, Order Metronidazole Gel online c.o.d, Asano argued for an abandonment of teleological narratives in which Japanese domination of Korea was a foregone policy and against dichotomous colonization-or-independence binary absolutes. It's true that Ito's reputation among Japanese residents in Korea was "pro-Korean" and the merger proposal Asano outlined certainly seemed reasonable -- an independent Korean judiciary and parliament, integration of the Korean royal family into the Japanese Diet -- but as much as I agree that we need to have an open mind about missed possibilities in history, I'm not convinced, Metronidazole Gel For Sale. Asano's right that Ito's revision of Korea's civil and criminal code laid a foundation for modern governance which persists -- with modifications -- to this day, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Metronidazole Gel maximum dosage, and Ito's rhetoric was reasonable, but I don't know that there's any reason to ignore the self-serving nature of both, buy Metronidazole Gel no prescription, Cheap Metronidazole Gel no rx, not to mention Ito's fairly aggressive moves against the Korean royal family, the disbanding of Korea's military and violent suppression of anti-Japanese movements and guerrillas, where can i find Metronidazole Gel online. Metronidazole Gel coupon, Doongook Kang's analysis of Liang Qichao's rhetoric related to Korea provided an interesting window into the Protectorate era, bringing Chinese discourses into the mix in a time when China is largely considered irrelevant to the Japan-Korea dynamic, buy generic Metronidazole Gel. Where can i order Metronidazole Gel without prescription, During this time period, Liang's comments on Korea mostly concern the causes of Korean decline, buy Metronidazole Gel without a prescription, Metronidazole Gel no prescription, and there's a fairly rapid shift involved. Before 1906, Metronidazole Gel dose, Metronidazole Gel results, Liang focused on Japanese Imperialism and other external causes, but after that he's emphasizing Korean internal factors, order Metronidazole Gel from United States pharmacy, Metronidazole Gel class, failings which, he argued, Metronidazole Gel brand name, Metronidazole Gel steet value, made colonization inevitable. Metronidazole Gel For Sale, What's particularly interesting about Kang's analysis is that it highlights the replacement of Chinese and Korean sources in Liang's writing with Japanese sources (including textual errors), and Liang's willingness to absorb Japanese rhetoric on Korea seems to be at the root of the change in tone. Korean intellectuals who took Liang Qichao seriously faced a choice about how to respond to these new arguments: some rejected Liang's ideas and remained strong proponents of a revitalized Korean nationalism, doses Metronidazole Gel work, Generic Metronidazole Gel, while others became more pessimistic.

Yumi Moon tracked the positions of the notoriously (but not entirely deservedly, Metronidazole Gel samples, After Metronidazole Gel, which was her point) collaborationist Ilchinhoe organization's positions over the Protectorate era. Starting from an argument that reform, discount Metronidazole Gel, Where can i buy cheapest Metronidazole Gel online, in 1904, was more important than sovereignty, ordering Metronidazole Gel online, Metronidazole Gel over the counter, the Ilchinhoe consistently tried to leverage the Japanese presence into reform opportunities; as anti-Japanese activities became more intense, the Ilchinhoe's position in Korean society became more marginal and more dependent on Japanese support, Metronidazole Gel blogs. Buy no prescription Metronidazole Gel online, Throughout, the Ilchinhoe's hope for Korean development remained strong, is Metronidazole Gel addictive, Metronidazole Gel australia, uk, us, usa, but the form and substance of independence became separated; the biggest weakness of the Ilchinhoe's position (and this goes back to Asano's paper as well) is that their argument depended on the honest good will of the Japanese as developmental colonialists.

The second panel was more of a festschrift for Hilary Conroy's 90th birthday than anything else, and wasn't quite as focused, but the presentations were individually very interesting, Metronidazole Gel For Sale. Conroy himself gave the closing speech and, Metronidazole Gel from canadian pharmacy, Rx free Metronidazole Gel, aside from some interesting reminiscences, the one thing he said that really stuck with me was that he should have switched the order of the title and subtitle of his book, online buy Metronidazole Gel without a prescription. The full title, which nobody remembers, is The Japanese Seizure of Korea, 1868-1910: A Study of Realism and Idealism in International Relations. If the subtitle had come first, Conroy argued, non-Asianists might have read it and it would have been a significant contribution to the political science literature; as it was, only Japan and Korea specialists read it and the lessons of the "problems inherent in the realist approach" were largely ignored until decades later.

For obvious reasons, my interest was most piqued by Wayne Patterson's analysis of the relationship between international labor migration and annexation. Metronidazole Gel For Sale, He argued that Japan's moves to strip the Korean government of its foreign relations power were partially inspired by Japan's concern about anti-Japanese racism in the US. The brief window of Korean migration to Hawai'i in the first decade of the 20th century created a crisis: the use of Koreans as strikebreakers in Hawai'i was part of the movement by Japanese emigrant laborers to transmigrate to the US mainland, where their presence was increasingly being met with racial hostility. In order to reduce the pressure to transmigrate from Hawai'i, Japan wanted to stem the flow of Koreans to Hawai'i, reduce competition and raise wages. In addition, the attempt by Horace Allen to use emigration as a lever to expand US business interests in Korea was threatening Japanese economic and political control. Japan used Korean migration to Mexico -- the result of a temporary lapse in regulation -- to raise concerns about the mistreatment of Koreans overseas, then used their influence in the Korean Foreign Ministry to cut off funds for Yun Chi-Ho's investigatory mission. As a result, Korean emigration was cut off entirely, and Japan was several steps further along in bringing the Korean government entirely under Japanese control, but it had no appreciable effect on the reception Japanese immigrants were getting in California or Hawai'i, Metronidazole Gel For Sale.

Peter Duus' presentation placed his work on Korean colonization in the context of testing theories about imperialism, describing the Japanese takeover as the result of ad hoc decisions made to appeal to a variety of economic and political interests, but lacking a coherent or long-range plan until after the Russo-Japanese war. Alexis Dudden's talk was a portion of this Japan Focus piece about the current discourses on Korean-Japanese history in Japan, especially the rise of nationalistic rationalizations of Japanese imperialism. Mark Caprio covered some of the same ground, directly challenging some of what you might call Japanese Exceptionalism with regard to its colonial history: Caprio rejected attempts to place the annexation and assimiliation policies outside of the normal categories of imperialism, arguing in essence that distinctions without a difference shouldn't excuse abusive systems of power and control.

Excellent panels, both, and kudos to the AAS for scheduling them sequentially rather than simultaneously. (Crossposted at Frog in a Well: Korea).

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3/19/2010

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Filed under: — K. M. Lawson @ 11:09 pm Print

Toradol For Sale, I found this gem in a June 21, 1900 Washington Post article:

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12/10/2009

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I really didn't want to get into the discussion about James Bradley's op-ed and interview Levaquin For Sale, because it's finals season, and because the argument was so obviously wrong. Levaquin overnight, Other historians have weighed in with a fairly negative review of the argument, (( There's even a comment from D, buying Levaquin online over the counter. Buy cheap Levaquin, Giangreco that I agree with, a rare event, what is Levaquin. Levaquin pics, )) but there's a book behind it, so I suppose the discussion has to happen, online buying Levaquin. Levaquin without prescription, Eric Rauchway did a reasonably good job of taking the Americanist side against Bradley; I've been in the comments over there, arguing, Levaquin trusted pharmacy reviews, Levaquin used for, effectively, that there's a bizarre amount of reality you have to ignore to make the connection between the Portsmouth Treat and Taft-Katsura on the one hand and the Manchurian Incident and Pearl Harbor on the other, Levaquin recreational.

The presumption that Roosevelt doing something more aggressive with regard to Japan’s claims in Korea and elsewhere wouldn’t have produced the Pacific War sooner seems unlikely to me, Levaquin For Sale. Doses Levaquin work, The combination of US expansion in the Pacific (Hawaii as well as the Philippines) and anti-Japanese/anti-immigrant racism was already leading some Japanese to consider the US a likely competitor and enemy in the near future: an intransigent or pro-Russian Roosevelt would have failed to negotiate the Portsmouth treaty (against which the Japanese people rioted anyway, because there was no indemnity payment) and the US would likely have been unable to integrate Japan into the Wilsonian treaties of the ’20s, buy Levaquin no prescription, Levaquin treatment, and the military would have been even more likely to move aggressively in China and the Pacific sooner than 1931.

From both sides, Levaquin steet value, Fast shipping Levaquin, the US and Japanese, it’s hard to see what Roosevelt could have done differently, cheap Levaquin no rx, Where to buy Levaquin, even assuming that he had the ahistorical inclination to do so that would have produced a better result.


There's a satirical theme in Edge of the American West comments which routinely blames people for things that happened many, many years after or before their time, Levaquin long term. Levaquin blogs, As absurd as it is, I had to point out that some people take it way too seriously, Levaquin for sale. Buy no prescription Levaquin online, I also noted something which I'm going to have to be sure to emphasize next time I teach this, because I think it'll clarify things for students:

Nobody intervened on the side of the Chinese, online Levaquin without a prescription, Buy Levaquin without prescription, ever. Even the “Open Door policy” was pretty much a dead letter from the beginning, Levaquin forum. Levaquin description, That’s why the Japanese thought they could get away with so much: the 21 Demands make it very clear the direction things are going to go, unless the Chinese can get their acts together quickly (which they didn’t), Levaquin dosage. Levaquin dangers, This is part of what made FDR’s intervention on their behalf so infuriating: it was out of character with the 19th century paradigm, and nobody had ever made a League of Nations decision the foundation of a diplomatic relationship (there was an attempt with the Italy/Ethiopia thing, order Levaquin online c.o.d, Levaquin results, but it didn’t stick).

I don't know why people never get tired of "original sin" counterfactual arguments, but they sure don't.

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11/16/2009

Buy Epogen Without Prescription

President Barack Obama shakes hands and bows with Emperor AkihitoVia my old friend Scott Eric Kaufman I learned that President Obama's visit to Japan was drawing criticism from the American right Buy Epogen Without Prescription, (I also learned that President Eisenhower bowed in public to a number of heads of state) due to Obama's bowed greeting to Emperor Akihito. After Epogen, Most of the commentary (this is an excellent roundup) hinges on whether it's inappropriate for an American Head of State to bow to another Head of State. This is, Epogen no rx, Purchase Epogen online no prescription, of course, why Kaufman was noting Eisenhower's bows, buy Epogen online cod, What is Epogen, none of which were, apparently, Epogen reviews, Epogen no prescription, mutual; other commenters have noted Clinton's bow fifteen years earlier, and Nixon's bow/handshake greeting with Emperor Hirohito, buy Epogen without prescription. Epogen wiki, Some of the criticism is nuanced enough to note that mutual bows are appropriate greetings in Japan, but suggests that Obama's bow was inappropriately deep and therefore servile and inappropriate, online Epogen without a prescription. Epogen without a prescription, Part of the problem in discussing this is the assumption that there is a stable protocol: Japan's modern Imperial institution is younger than the American Republic, and interactions with other heads of state have always been somewhat improvisational, where to buy Epogen. Before the Meiji Restoration, the Emperor didn't meet heads of state, Buy Epogen Without Prescription. Epogen use, For centuries, the Emperor basically met nobody who wasn't a member of the court aristocracy or high officials of the shogunal state: there was no public protocol except for a vague tradition that required the Emperor be above the gaze of anyone, buy Epogen from canada, Where can i order Epogen without prescription, not to be looked down upon. That tradition was revived in the Imperial era, no prescription Epogen online, Epogen for sale, but it wasn't much guidance in dealing with modern crowds, photography, about Epogen, Epogen from canadian pharmacy, diplomatic visits. Even Meiji's coronation ceremony was an innovation, online buying Epogen hcl, Generic Epogen, purged of Chinese elements and enhanced with Shinto rituals. (See Keene, Epogen overnight, Order Epogen online overnight delivery no prescription, ch. Buy Epogen Without Prescription, 18) The first head of state to visit was Hawaiian King Kalakaua, but he was actually preceeded by a visit from former President U.S. Grant who greeted the Emperor with handshakes, cheap Epogen no rx. Epogen from canada, Every time an aristocrat or diplomat met the Emperor, protocol had to be negotiated in advance, Epogen interactions, Order Epogen no prescription, and it shifted over time: when and how much to bow, whether handshakes would be permitted, buy Epogen no prescription, Epogen over the counter, whether foreign women could enter the Emperor's presence with their diplomat husbands, etc, Epogen natural. Epogen duration, But this wasn't yet the great age of state visits: that doesn't come until the 20th century, and the rise of air travel, Epogen coupon. Epogen photos, Before the next America presidential visit with a Japanese emperor, though, where can i cheapest Epogen online, Epogen forum, WWII intervened: the Japanese Emperor was demoted from sacred and inviolable to the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people. More importantly, perhaps, Japan became a neo-colonial extension of American power for a time (when that time ends is a matter of debate, of course) so that Presidential courtesies like Nixon's bow were harmless to American power, Buy Epogen Without Prescription. By the time of Clinton's gesture, order Epogen from United States pharmacy, Purchase Epogen online, though, Japan's economic power was a threat to American dominance (well, australia, uk, us, usa, Epogen from mexico, with the 90s recession, not really, Epogen images, but pundits had spent a good portion of the '80s talking up the Japanese threat, and the impression stuck), and the Imperial transition of 1989 took away the American sense that the Emperor was someone who had been defeated and disarmed. Even Clinton's gesture towards a bow was too much for some, apparently: the very concept of monarchy raised spectres of pre-Revolutionary attitudes, though bowing is not necessarily a subservient act when done between equals (or by a superior) in the Japanese tradition.

Obama's bow is a very formal one -- formality and hierarchy are two different things -- and in the context of a handshake. It doesn't change the nature of the US-Japan relationship as much as the election of Japan's new non-LDP PM, as much as the rising nationalistic culture, as much as the ongoing shifts in the economic relationship between two of the largest -- and most obviously struggling -- economies in the world.

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9/2/2009

Flonase For Sale

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 2:05 pm Print

Brett Holman notes a new contender in the "really First World War" sweepstakes -- the Seven Years War and Napoleonic Wars being leading early contenders -- namely The Russo-Japanese War Flonase For Sale, . John Steinberg, cheap Flonase no rx, Flonase steet value, editor of the two-volume The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective: World War Zero offers ten points of comparison that he seems to consder hallmarks of a world war:

1. Like World War I, Flonase trusted pharmacy reviews, Buy Flonase from mexico, the origins of the Russo-Japanese War were rooted in imperialistic competition between world powers

2. As in August 1914, after Flonase, Buying Flonase online over the counter, when the Russo-Japanese conflict began, it was fought in a neutral country(s) (China and Korea)

3, Flonase price, coupon. Flonase from canada, In the midst of the conflict and in the area where combat occurred, governmental structures broke down and the emergency was greeted with a response by non-governmental agencies such as the Red Cross

4, where can i find Flonase online. The conflict was marked by the use of sophisticated, complicated, and (above all else) lethal industrial weapons such as machine guns, rapid fire infantry assault weapons, rapid fire artillery, mines, and torpedoes, Flonase For Sale. Flonase forum, These were accompanied by the logistical infrastructure needed to keep ammunition and other essential supplies flowing to modern fielded armies

5. The natural product of the War’s deadly battlefields — mass casualties — required levels of aid which no medical corps of the period had the ability to help, Flonase australia, uk, us, usa. Online buying Flonase hcl, The sheer numbers of men in need of aid overwhelmed these units.

6, Flonase results. Flonase For Sale, The duration of battles at the beginning of the War lasted two or three days (The Yalu and Nanshan) and were contained to relatively small areas. Flonase cost, By the end of the war the battles of Liaoyang and Mukden lasted weeks and featured battlefields that extended for kilometers. [NB: In terms of duration and brutality, where can i cheapest Flonase online, Flonase gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, the six to seven-month siege of Port Arthur foreshadowed what later happened at Verdun in 1916.]

7. The cost of fighting such a technologically demanding war required the formation of international syndicates of bankers simply to derive the credit needed for both the Japanese and Russians to keep purchasing and producing weapons and munitions, buy cheap Flonase no rx. Order Flonase from mexican pharmacy, 8. Like WWI, the Russo-Japanese War was widely reported on and represented in all forms of visual presentations, from photographs to wood block prints, Flonase For Sale.

9, Flonase online cod. Flonase pharmacy, Like Versailles, the Treaty of Portsmouth occurred only after one belligerent (Japan) ran out of men, order Flonase no prescription, Flonase no rx, materials and credit, and the Russians found themselves in the midst of a Revolution, Flonase duration. Online Flonase without a prescription, Perhaps more to the point, the treaty itself resolved little beyond ending hostilities and, fast shipping Flonase, Flonase alternatives, worse, created circumstances that fueled grievances that culminated in future conflict, buy Flonase without prescription. Kjøpe Flonase på nett, köpa Flonase online, 10. When the war concluded and the peace was signed the strengthening of the pan-Asian movement continued to fuel animosities that further destabilized the world.

Flonase For Sale, My immediate reaction, like Brett, is that this is list of similarities, which is interesting, but that they are aspects of modern warfare rather than a description of the kind of global cataclysmic or transformative event that would justify the "world war" moniker. You could say that it was a sort of regional prototype for the war, Flonase blogs, Flonase reviews, but you could say that about just about any conflict after the Franco-Prussian war, including the Spanish-American war (which probably ought to go on the "World War Wannabee" list, real brand Flonase online, Taking Flonase, as a bi-oceanic, imperial conflict); one of Steinberg's co-bloggers notes that the Russo-Turkish war fits all those criteria, Flonase without prescription, Flonase use, but that still doesn't qualify it as a "World War," just a nasty imperialistic conflict, purchase Flonase. Flonase pics, Most of these points are weak comparisons, I think, where can i order Flonase without prescription, Rx free Flonase, but arguable: the idea (point 2) that the natural battleground for a World War is neutral nations' territories, for example, order Flonase online c.o.d, What is Flonase, ignores the difference between truly "neutral" and "in the sphere of influence"/colony which really defines the initial (and for the R-J war, only) battlegrounds of imperialist wars. The last point perplexes me thoroughly: while there certainly is an upsurge in anti-Japanese (and generally anti-Imperial) nationalism in China and Korea after the R-J War, to describe this as "pan-Asian sentiment" seems wrong. If he's arguing that Japan's success leads to an upsurge of pan-Asianism in Japan, that's more reasonable, but to describe it as a "movement" and to place the blame for Asia's early 20th century destabilization on that rather than continued imperialistic pressures (for which pan-Asianism was a fig leaf of rationalization, nothing more) is overblown.

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2/11/2009

Buy Flexeril Without Prescription

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 6:46 pm Print

Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, I don't often get unsolicited books with handwritten notes from the authors, unless I worked with them in some way. What was even more surprising is that the book came to my new office before I was even done unpacking. That's pretty spiffy service. The book had blurbs from Maxine Hong Kingston and Liza Dalby, which was promising. The book was about The World of Tea, and centered on an orphaned American taken in by a prominent Japanese family; not so promising. The author, Ellis Avery is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Columbia in Creative Writing, and a five year veteran, we're told in her bio, of tea ceremony training, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Purchase Flexeril online no prescription, Well, most of my fun books were in boxes, so I did read The Teahouse Fire, and since it is about the bakumatsu-Meiji era, I feel I should say something about it.

The Teahouse Fire is a historical fiction, which shares most of the flaws typical of the genre: a carefully set but very selective milieu; characters cobbled together from cultural and psychosocial fragments; wildly unlikely encounters and inappropriate behavior. Though the story does less damage to the historical narrative than usual for this kind of work, canada, mexico, india, it is still an excellent example of why I don't ever use historical fiction in my teaching, and why I rarely read it (especially in my own field!). [SPOILERS ahead] (( I'm an historian, so knowing how it comes out doesn't bother me. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, ))

Aurelia arrives in Kyoto at the age of nine in 1866, accompanied by her pederastic priest uncle, her only living relative, from whom she is separated (not before the pederasty manifests, of course) by a catastrophic fire; she ends up at the Shin family residence in weakened condition and is taken in. She is immediately recognizable as a foreigner due to her dress and inability to speak more than a few words of Japanese (( her linguistic abilities were what brought her to Japan in the first place, but she'd only been studying from a basic grammar for a little while )) but she has straight black hair and in Japanese garb is taken for some kind of developmentally delayed foundling by the neighbors:

"After all, Flexeril trusted pharmacy reviews, we had never seen a real one before," Chio told me some years later. "But we had seen pictures, and everyone knew foreigners were huge, piggy people with very long noses, very red hair, and very green eyes, so you obviously weren't one, Flexeril long term. Clearly someone was playing a trick on us with that clothing." (54)

Aurelia -- known as "Urako" in Japanese -- isn't properly revealed as foreign until her mid-30s, 1891, when she's expelled from the local bathhouse as "unclean." (344-347) (( Also, she develops a decidedly non-Japanese figure (142, 400), but that's mostly concealed by kimono-style clothing. Where can i find Flexeril online, Though there's an awful lot of time spent unclothed, too, in baths, in bed, etc. )) All of this strikes me as a little anachronistic: There was a pretty brisk trade in woodblocks featuring foreigners in the 1850s and 1860s, so the distorted view of Perry had certainly been supplemented over the intervening decade, and foreigners -- priests and teachers, at least -- were beginning to be a presence even in Kyoto, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Still, not a lot of foreign children had been seen, so I could buy it for a while; a quarter century, Flexeril brand name, though. During the intervening years, the family uses her for translation in their dealings with foreigners several times, and she works as a translator/secretary for a girls' school mistress. The expulsion from the bathhouse as "unclean" seems over-dramatic, given that foreigners were living all over Japan by the 1890s, Flexeril gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, but it's vaguely possible it's a function of this being Kyoto instead of Yokohama and Tokyo, and that they are responding to the "child of prostitute and foreigner" theory they had rejected earlier. (55) (( There have been recent reports of "no foreigner allowed" bathhouses, but those are, in fact, recent. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, There is, it's true, a real tradition of discrimination against the offspring of foreign-Japanese unions, especially non-caucasian foreigners. ))

Anyway, moving on, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Aurelia becomes a part of the household, gets better and better at Japanese (( eventually reading some classical works like Sei Shonagon. )) and more and more aware of the sexual and cultural politics of the family. The Shin clan is cast as very prominent Tea practitioners:

Rikyu, the founding ancestor of tea ceremony and tea teacher to Hideyoshi, the most important warlord of his day, Flexeril use, was forced to commit suicide once he'd ceased to please his master. The tearoom Cloud House was built in the style favored by Rikyu's grandson, Sotan, a man so beggared by his grandfather's disgrace that his favorite teascoop was the one worn on the side from years of use. When his luck changed for the better, Sotan had a one-and-a-half-mat hut built to keep himself honest, to honor the years he'd spent in his own company, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. A generation later, his oldest son Shinso built a copy of the tiny house on his own property, to memorialize his family's hardship: this was our Cloud House, where the Mountain [the head of the household] drank his dwindling store of tea, buying Flexeril online over the counter. (109)

This may be the tradition that Avery learned in her Tea training, the "wabi Sotan," but it's a myth: Sotan may have been Rikyu's grandson, but he was head of the household starting just a few years after Rikyu's death, and he was deliberate and active in promoting the well-being and prominence of the Sen family and tradition. The Shin family is described as taking Rikyu as an "adopted forefather" (109) because of the connection with Tea, Flexeril images, but they act as though the Sen schools didn't exist, or at least didn't exist in Kyoto. In fact, as you'll see, the Shin family is the Sen family, with the name changed to protect, presumably, the author from the wrath of the Urasenke familia, Flexeril from canada. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, The Meiji Restoration was not good for the Shin family. At least not this version of the Meiji Restoration:
At the end of the second year of Meiji, the Emperor decreed an end to the feudal aristocracy. On the night of his restoration, he had announced that he was taking back all the land he had entrusted to the Shogun and his lords, and all the rice money that the land yielded. In place of a hereditary warrior caste, Flexeril price, each man loyal to his liege, the Emperor now announced that in a few years' time he would establish an army conscripted from boys of all origins, loyal to himself alone. To do this, and to fund the new government, he cut loose all the lords and samurai who had benefited from the Shogun's largesse for two hundred fifty years. .., Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Worse still, the Emperor announced a program of Bunmei Kaika, Flexeril schedule, Civilization and Enlightenment, dismissing tea, like falconry or incense-guessing games, as an archaic "pasttime," better abandoned than subsidized. (108)

This collapses several years of history -- not to mention the bakuhan system -- into a single, Flexeril pictures, catastrophic stroke, effectively bankrupting the Shin family. (( I also don't recall any proclamations which denigrated tea ceremony, though it wasn't something that interested the Meiji Emperor. )) This sets in motion some of the core plots of the book: the attempt to support the house in the short term by finding new students and other sources of income, and to reinvigorate it in the long term by making the study of Tea a part of the national curriculum for girls' schools. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, There is the old "traditionalist v. innovater" tension, overlaid with a strong dose of "aloof samurai v, kjøpe Flexeril på nett, köpa Flexeril online. worldly businessman" -- or "businesswoman" in this case, as it's Aurelia's protector Yukako who becomes the energetic center of the family, teaching new students, making political connections, brokering the Shin family name to create low-cost tea sets for educational use, popular consumption and foreign markets. Order Flexeril online overnight delivery no prescription, (e.g. 300-313) (( You can, by the way, buy a complete tea ceremony set, "inspired by" the implements described in the book, with a complimentary copy of the novel for good measure. )) She is immensely successful: by 1891, middle and higher schools for girls are to have tea ceremony training as part of the curriculum, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription.

Though it struck me as odd, at first, order Flexeril no prescription, this is, Morgan Pitelka assures me, quite correct. (( Many thanks to Morgan for his feedback and, of course, his fine scholarship on these matters. Rx free Flexeril, All remaining errors of history, culture and interpretation are either mine or Avery's. )) Here's how he described it in his book on Raku, Handmade Culture:

In the last two decades of the nineteenth century the Sen iemoto began to initiate more direct contact with people interested in tea. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, Perhaps they understood that to survive in modern society, tea would have to expand beyond the confines of the elite and enter the domain of mass culture. In the 1880s, Urasenke started offering tea lessons at one of the prefectural girls’ schools in Kyoto. The lessons proved popular with students and parents. Such programs were expanded rapidly, discount Flexeril, and by the early 1910s, female practitioners came to outnumber male ones in Urasenke. (( Kumakura, Ima no chanoyu, mukashi no chanoyu, 204-5. )) Modern tea teachers placed great emphasis on performing the movements of tea with a calm intensity, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Buy no prescription Flexeril online, The focused atmosphere of the tea room and the physical and mental discipline acquired by hours of tea practice often paired with flower arrangement were deemed ideal for the education of cultivated young women. By the 1930s, after-hours private schools taught tea and flower arrangement to young women across the country. (( Kagotani Machiko, “Josei to chanoyu,” in Kindai no chanoyu, ed. Kumakura Isao, Flexeril alternatives, vol. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, 6, Chadô shûkin (Shogakkan, 1985), 253-9. ))

As an aside, until I read that passage in conjunction with Alan Baumler's recent commentary on ritual and music in early philosophy, and the introduction to Confucianism I'm doing in my Early China class that I realized that, at some point, the dominant philosophical tradition guiding Tea practice shifted from Zen to Confucianism. Flexeril no prescription, I don't ever recall reading any discussion of Confucian influence on Tea practice, outside of some generalizations about sociality, but compare Morgan's comments above with this description of Confucian ritual:

The rituals Confucius discussed, many of them deriving from the ancestral worship of the Zhou, had many more steps than a simple handshake; but if they were learned correctly, they too could express one's innermost humanity. Confucius emphasized that the rites had to be performed with feeling:
The Master said: "Authority without generosity, ceremony without reverence, online buying Flexeril hcl, mourning without grief -- these, I cannot bear to contemplate." (3.26)

Ritual, then, should not be an empty form.

Ritual allowed people to express emotion, but one had to understand the rituals in order to understand what sentiment was being displayed. Like a handshake, these rituals could be confusing, sometimes impenetrable, to people outside one's own culture, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Order Flexeril from United States pharmacy, (( Valerie Hansen. The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. W.W. Norton&Co, 2000. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, p. 70 ))

Though based on the real history, there's something missing from the story, starting with the class tension when Yukako reluctantly takes on a prominent geisha as a student (who then goes on to become famous as "the geisha who does tea ceremony"), Flexeril without a prescription. (( While not explicit on the entertainer v. prostitute debate, Avery certainly treats the geisha as though they had the status of prostitutes, and really very little class or culture before they hijack Tea. )) There is no evidence that Avery understands the role of tea ceremony training for women in the late Tokugawa and Meiji eras, when "The cha-no-yu ceremonies are taught every girl having any pretensions to family or breeding, After Flexeril, and a woman of the high classes would hardly care to acknowledge to one of her own countrymen that she was not versed in these mysteries." (( The New York Times, July 17, 1892, p. 6, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. There's lots of other evidence, from Matsuo Taseko -- late Tokugawa rural background, but tea and poetry trained -- to Alice Mabel Bacon )) Something that was common to women of high rank and sophistication would almost certainly be part of the geisha curriculum as well. (( It certainly is today, Flexeril blogs, with the active involvement of the Urasenke school. )) There's a fairly strong consensus that the tea ceremony economy was in a fairly serious slump from the early Meiji until the cultural nationalism revival of the 1930s. (( Tim Cross, "Rikyu has Left the Tea Room: National Cinema Interrogates the anecdotal Legend," Japanese Tea Culture: Art, History, Flexeril over the counter, and Practice edited by Morgan Pitelka, Routledge, 2003, pp. 171-172 Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, )) During this slump, there was, as Morgan noted, a shift towards female participation at the highest levels. (( There does seem to be some discussion about when "feminization" takes place. Above, Morgan places it around the turn of the century. Elsewhere, about Flexeril, it's described as being a post-WWII phenomenon. e.g. MORGAN PITELKA, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Review of ETSUKO KATO: The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan: Bodies Re-Presenting the Past. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London 68.1 (2005): 176-178. Research Library. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, ProQuest. Flexeril street price, Pittsburg State University Library, Pittsburg, Kansas. 7 Jan. 2009 )) The book gives the strong impression that tea ceremony was an exclusively male practice, with extraordinary exceptions, until the Restoration, and that it became a practice among women solely as a result of a concerted effort by tea practitioners to impose on the new national culture through formal education, Flexeril price, coupon. Though the wealthy elites on which the Sen family relied had lost a great deal of their income and resources, there were hundreds of tea teachers, thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of tea-trained women in Japan at this point, and a strong tradition of tea as a part of the education of upper-class (or aspiring) women. The idea that the Shin/Sen family alone was responsible for the preservation of tea culture in Japan is historically absurd; they were responsible only for preserving their place in tea culture, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Buy cheap Flexeril, This, as much as anything else, gave the book a feel of unreality for me, but it is, perhaps, an authentic representation of the perspective of the Sen/Shin family.

Anyway, the whole thing comes crashing to a head in 1891, Flexeril wiki, including an assasination attempt on the education minister, by a character with ties to the Shin family who's become radicalized. The exact nature of the radicalism is a little unclear: it seems to be a sort of free-floating anti-government populism. It's not traditionalism or Imperial loyalty -- there's some serious discussion about the oppressive nature of the Tea tradition's craft requirements -- so it seems vaguely Marxist/anarchist. Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, It's too early for either of those in Japan, though they were in the West. Aurelia decides to go back to the United States, where she reunites with her first love, Flexeril australia, uk, us, usa, sets up shop and lives happily ever after. (( I almost wrote "happily, if implausibly" but the relationship in question wasn't impossible (the author is described by Avery as "my partner") and actually makes at least as much sense as many of the other tragic errors that pass for relationships in the book. ))

Avery includes a fair number of other historical references to anchor the story, including the 1872 Kyoto Exposition (187, passim), extraterritoriality (222), tattoed mobsters (252), Flexeril class, outcaste liberation, Rokumeikan (257, though she translates it as "Belling Stag Pavilion"), the Satsuma Uprising (217-219, though it's not clear whether this is run-up, or the uprising itself, Buy Flexeril online no prescription, because the scene takes place in 1876, not 1877). Perhaps its petty of me, but these really feel more like signposts than genuine plot points. Of course she has to mention the Satsuma uprising, yakuza; the Exposition and Rokumeikan are useful moments to comment on the interaction of foreign and Japanese cultures, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Outcastes are a surprisingly important theme in the book, which feels more like a modern literary interest in status and transgression than an authentic sociological observation. There's also the almost obligatory commentary and translation of the literal etymology of Japanese idioms, as though anyone actually thinks of these things when saying "goodbye" (346) or "thank you very much, buy cheap Flexeril no rx," (55) or marriage negotiations ("Sightings," 352). It clearly "marks the text" as they say, as Japanese and old-fashioned. Some of this can be explained by the use of Aurelia as narrator, I suppose, Is Flexeril addictive, but places the book securely in the tradition of orientalia using outsiders as stand-ins for the non-native readers -- Shogun, or a lot of other genre fiction.

The Teahouse Fire Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, alludes or borrows from a number of other traditions and works. Aurelia reads Sei Shonagon, and some other classical works, and the Heian romantic model features prominently in her romantic difficulties: the exchange of scented presents; gifts with coded and punned messages; longing and denial expressed in wisps of hair. (e.g., 378-379) The affairs, incest and bisexuality remind me of Genji more than Pillow Book, Flexeril samples, though the descriptions are 21st century "Steamy East" (( That "Steamy East" site is by the same people who created this Nishikie site cataloging, with many translations, woodblock prints used by Japanese newspapers in the 1870s to illustrate and tell many lurid and interesting stories. I'm in love. )) rather than 11th century. (( None of the sex scenes made me groan, wince or otherwise think of Scooter Libby, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. Some of them seemed unlikely situations and pairings, but not bizarre in the act itself. It's not the only or most important measure of a writer, but it's something, especially in this field. )) The "fading family fortunes" narrrative calls to mind Tanizaki's Makioka Sisters, of course. The entrepreneurship and self-improvement narrative has hint of Samuel Smiles to it. Avery's aesthetics of tea are very orthodox: Okakura's Book of Tea Buy Flexeril Without Prescription, is just one of many statements on the subject, but it certainly covers the ground well and many of its strictures are echoed by the words and actions of the characters.

There was a lot of work in putting this book together. Historical and cultural research, extensive plotting, and careful writing are all in evidence. Most of the characters seem either implausible or shallow, but they are all fairly consistent with themselves, and some of them seem to actually mature. The combination of themes from the Tea tradition and current literary trends don't always work together all that well. The sexuality and politics of the modern novel should subvert the asexual aesthetics of Tea -- just as the commodification of Tea is a fundamental paradox which practitioners fail to understand -- or vice versa, but Avery's devotion to the Practice and to her sexual politics are too great to allow either to be compromised, or even affected, by the other, Buy Flexeril Without Prescription. It's an interesting attempt, I suppose, but it ultimately doesn't feel all that faithful to the history, to the real human drama, nor terribly enlightening.

The note that Avery put in my copy suggested that I might consider the book as a teaching tool. This is precisely why I don't use historical fiction: the demands of fiction and the demands of history are two very different things. What drives the plot is psychodrama; what drives history is something else entirely. I want my students to get a good feel for historical milieu, to develop an empathy with the people of history, but by imposing a modern psychology on a bit of the historical narrative, the novel distorts reality and forecloses the development of real empathy. The novel, despite its pretensions to subtlety, mistakes complications for nuance, mistakes conflict for complexity.

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