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7/7/2014

Science, Social Science, and Pseudoscience of Diet/Culture Thesis

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 3:50 pm Print
Eminent food historian Rachel Laudan alerted me recently to the existence of new scholarship, cultural psychology, giving support to the idea that different basic grains gave rise to different cultures which have measurable effects at the individual level: "Large-Scale Psychological Differences Within China Explained by Rice Versus Wheat Agriculture." The research is intriguing for its attempted rigor: From a quantitative social science perspective, they did everything right.
Cross-cultural psychologists have mostly contrasted East Asia with the West. However, this study shows that there are major psychological differences within China. We propose that a history of farming rice makes cultures more interdependent, whereas farming wheat makes cultures more independent, and these agricultural legacies continue to affect people in the modern world. We tested 1162 Han Chinese participants in six sites and found that rice-growing southern China is more interdependent and holistic-thinking than the wheat-growing north. To control for confounds like climate, we tested people from neighboring counties along the rice-wheat border and found differences that were just as large. We also find that modernization and pathogen prevalence theories do not fit the data.
There's a problem here, though, that scientists and statisticians refer to as "prior plausibility": it's not enough that you can create an experiment to test for a difference, but there has to be a good reason to create the experiment in the first place. If there isn't, then the concept of "statistically significant correlation" becomes meaningless. This is Bayesian statistics, as I understand it. As Rachel Laudan and her commenters point out, there are good historical reasons to believe that many wheat-cultivating cultures were at least as collective-minded as rice-growing cultures are presumed to be; similarly, there's plenty of research pointing out the individualistic and profit-oriented elements of early modern Japanese and Chinese peasant societies. The upside of this is that it finally spurred me to pick up Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney, Rice as Self: Japanese Identities Through Time which is often cited in these discussions. As I said on twitter, I've been reluctant largely because citations to it seemed mostly to be used to bolster arguments like those above: that something fundamental about rice cultivation -- usually the collectivist village, as imagined in modernity -- is the heart or essence of Japanese Civilization since forever, etc. What I found, as most of you know, is a fairly satisfying and subtle discussion of the way in which symbols work in cultures, with a "side dish" of historical skepticism about the actual role of rice and of agriculture. The way in which the discourse of Japan as made up of rice cultivating rural communities has obscured many elements of change over time, including the diversity of rural production, hunter-gatherer traditions, non-agricultural commoners, and the value of mobility and urbanization in modernity. (( I'll admit, anthropological semiotics still feels very circular to me: the chicken-egg problem of cultural re/production, activity/agency never feels quite resolved or quite grounded. )) In fact, it seems like most of the citations to Rice as Self that I've seen over the last ten years have been very weak ones: Ohnuki-Tierney doesn't support the "rice creates culture" argument (at least not here; this is 20-year old scholarship, and she's been busy since then) and I strongly suspect that the evidence doesn't, either.

8/10/2012

Buy Clomid Without Prescription

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 12:24 am Print

FallsofClydeLongViewI saw Margi Preus's Heart of a Samurai Buy Clomid Without Prescription, (Amulet, 2010) and the title alone made me cringe: just what the world needs, another kid book touting the putative values of warrior aristocrats. Clomid from mexico, But when I picked it up, I realized immediately that it was something else entirely (or almost entirely): a fictionalized retelling of John Manjiro's adventures as a castaway from Japan, real brand Clomid online. Clomid without prescription, Here's a story that's worth retelling -- though it's been done a few times already -- and which presents a very different light on Japanese history. I borrowed it from my friend (( who had bought it as a donation to a youth library based on recommendations from other children )) and discovered that I was right, buy Clomid online no prescription. Clomid description, Both times.

John Manjiro, also known as John Mung and Nakahama Manjiro, spent most of the 1840s on American ships and American soil, finally returning to Japan not long before Perry's arrival marked the end of Japan's relative isolation from foreign contact and trade, Buy Clomid Without Prescription. I haven't read any of the other books on castaways, buy Clomid no prescription, Clomid maximum dosage, though I've heard a number of my friend Stephen Kohl's panels at ASPAC. Manjiro's tale is more extreme, Clomid for sale, No prescription Clomid online, both in the length of time he was away and the depth of his experiences, not to mention the timing of his return, Clomid price, coupon. Buy Clomid from canada, When he returned he was interrogated thoroughly, then forced to remain in his hometown before being called to service, buy cheap Clomid. Clomid over the counter, With his experience, he became a valuable source for policy-makers, order Clomid from United States pharmacy, Order Clomid no prescription, starting with his native Tosa domain, passing to Shogunal service, Clomid street price, Cheap Clomid, and then as a promoter of Western learning. Buy Clomid Without Prescription, Manjiro's journey was well-documented, and highlights some fascinating aspects of mid-19th century global life, including the whaling industry famously chronicled in Moby Dick, early education, and the tensions engendered by Japan's isolation. Preus's handling of the chronology and substantive topics is straightforward and sometimes quite good, discount Clomid, Clomid dosage, including the racism Manjiro encountered both at sea and in New England. (( A really excellent summary of Manjiro's tale can be found here: Nakahama Manjirō's Hyōsen Kiryaku: A Companion Book : Produced for the Exhibition "Drifting, buy generic Clomid, Clomid used for, Nakahama Manjirōs Tale of Discovery" : an Illustrated Manuscript Recounting Ten Years of Adventure at Sea. Aside from the great pictures and introduction, buy Clomid without a prescription, Clomid brand name, the book claims that Manjiro was used as a kind of spy, eavesdropping on American negotiators (21) ))

My reservations about this book stem from the samurai lens which is imposed on a commoner's tale, Clomid from canadian pharmacy. Where can i find Clomid online, The title refers to Manjiro, who is described early in the book as having ambitions to become a samurai, Clomid images, Clomid australia, uk, us, usa, fulfilling the romantic and honorable role laid out in the classic tales. (pp, Buy Clomid Without Prescription. 13-14) Each section of the book has an epigram from Yamamoto's Hagakure or something called "the Samurai's Creed" (( that's before part one, buy Clomid online cod. Clomid dangers, In the bibliography, Yamamoto Tsunetomo's Hagakure is cited twice, purchase Clomid online no prescription, Online buy Clomid without a prescription, both the 1979 and 2008 translations, his name is cited backwards, Clomid coupon, Clomid treatment, and once misspelled )) and Manjiro's elevation to sword-wearing Shogunal retainer is treated as the culmination of a long-held dream (as well as being entirely unprecedented). It's possible that Manjiro really felt this way -- I haven't been able to find any reference to it in the materials I've seen -- but it certainly seems odd for a tale about a fisherman who became a proponent of egalitarianism and Westernization to have more references to sources on samurai than on village life or Meiji transformations, canada, mexico, india. Is Clomid addictive, There was one bit I liked, though: in New England, Clomid gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Get Clomid, Manjiro is demonstrating sword fighting to an American friend, but confesses to himself that he has no idea what he's doing, effects of Clomid, Clomid no prescription, and that he and his friends in Japan made up their own moves to go along with the styles of fighting they'd heard about but never saw. Buy Clomid Without Prescription, (p. 133)

There were a few bothersome details -- an anachronistic use of bata-kusai and the misuse of the word "sutra" for "prayer" on the same page (p, order Clomid from mexican pharmacy. 31) was particularly troubling and I'd have been happier if Manjiro's acknowledgement of Japanese whaling came before he expressed shock and horror at Western whaling (p. 45) -- but the errors were not fundamentally damaging to the historical context. The fictionalized characters and conflicts (p. 280) seem a bit overdrawn to me, though the issues they raise were real, Buy Clomid Without Prescription. The length of the book is something of a problem: though it's almost 300 pages, they are so sparse and there is so much illustration and blank space that the story felt quite rushed. Perhaps the fictionalized material stands out so much because it's quite detailed, whereas large sections of equally dramatic real life read like paraphrases of the short histories cited above. (( and the helpful material at the end really is fairly clearly paraphrased material. I understand not footnoting the story, but clear references in reference material seems reasonable, no. ))

On the whole, not a terrible book, though I think there's still room for, say, an kid-oriented abridgement of Manjiro's own testimony, with annotation by actual experts.

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11/27/2011

Aricept For Sale

Aricept For Sale, For a little entertainment this Thanksgiving, I read Andrew Rankin's Seppuku: A History of Samurai Suicide (Kodansha, 2011). (( It helps to have friends who are journal editors: my colleague at Midwest Quarterly passed it on to see if it was worth a review, where can i find Aricept online, Aricept from canadian pharmacy, shortly before the journal gave up reviewing. )) Since I'm teaching both Samurai and Early Japan this semester, buy Aricept no prescription, Buy Aricept online no prescription, seemed like a good supplemental read, and this is the first thing resembling a lull I've had all semester, kjøpe Aricept på nett, köpa Aricept online. Aricept brand name, This is an attractive little book, substantially researched, what is Aricept, Aricept trusted pharmacy reviews, but not much of a history. It's more like a miscellany, Aricept mg, Aricept duration, a collection of materials in search of a thesis.

Japan - 17c late Full suit ArmorAndrew Rankin is a graduate student in literature, specializing in Mishima Yukio: no wonder then, that he has collected materials on extremes of samurai culture, though Mishima is conspicuous by his almost-total absence from this work, Aricept For Sale. (( Three references, buying Aricept online over the counter, Aricept wiki, mostly directed at the presentation of suicide in his writing, and one brief mention of the Mishima's own "anachronistic seppuku suicide." (18) The Satsuma uprising is also missing, Aricept natural, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, except for its role in General Nogi's own anachronistic death. )) Mishima is the subtext, Aricept from canada, Aricept price, though, as the entire work is dominated by discourses of aesthetics and authenticity, buy cheap Aricept no rx, Is Aricept addictive, without the complications of anthropological or historical theory, economics or historical context, online Aricept without a prescription. Doses Aricept work, Thus you get sentences like: "Their chief aspiration, in its psychological essence, Aricept no rx, Purchase Aricept online no prescription, was to realize the perennial samurai fantasy of inviolable rectitude and fearless self-sacrifice culminating in sanguinary apotheosis." (197) While Rankin acknowledges changes in practice over time, the view of samurai culture is anachronistic and stands little close scrutiny, buy no prescription Aricept online. Where can i buy Aricept online, Too bad, because even within the realm of performative aesthetics, Aricept used for, Get Aricept, there's a fascinating set of problems on display here that deserve serious thought.

Japanese Dolls Warrior 2While academics are often accused of bibliography-dumping Aricept For Sale, on our younger colleagues, that Kodansha would publish a footnoted, bibliography-laden book on samurai culture without references to Eiko Ikegami, Thomas Conlan or Paul Varley -- to pick the first three that I looked for and didn't find -- seems a bit haphazard. This book could be an interesting counterpoint to Ikegami, purchase Aricept for sale, Aricept street price, in particular, because of her focus on the tensions between control and individual self-expression around the warrior class, discount Aricept, Aricept for sale, but without any engagement or thesis statement, this work remains frustratingly aloof, buy Aricept from canada. Aricept results, What this book does reasonably well is present nearly-raw materials on the stomach-cutting suicide practice, how it evolved from an exceptional display to a tradition, Aricept samples, Buy Aricept from mexico, then to a routinized procedure and finally to a romantic gesture in the Bakumatsu-Meiji era, where it stops, Aricept description. Aricept steet value, This process is as close as the book comes to a thesis, though "point of view" might be closer, australia, uk, us, usa. Herbal Aricept, There are two substantive chapters chronicling this evolution. separated by one on the procedure of the mature seppuku ritual of the Tokugawa era, Aricept For Sale. All of these chapters are more episodic than coherently narrative, Aricept price, coupon, Aricept forum, focusing on individual events selected, as near as I can tell, for cultural impact or typicality: Well over half the book is short prose portraits of seppuku events and their ilk. There's a great deal of interesting stuff here, details and terminology that will liven up lectures and spur the imaginations of historical novelists. There's also a sort of epilogue, called "Paradigms" which is a collection of primary source quotations... well, it starts as primary source quotations, chronological, then Westerners and 20th century Japanese views start to slip in, material which was never addressed in the rest of the work. My favorite bit from that section is the "Death poem of Kanzawa Toko (1795)"

Aricept For Sale, Death poems
are a delusion.
You just die.

It feels incomplete. Not just because I'm a scholar and I want analysis and counterarguments. But because the book doesn't even hold together to the standards of a popular history. Despite the example above, the prose is mostly fine, though the endless progression of stomach-cutting does get to be a bit much: there aren't enough synonyms, though Rankin doesn't resort to euphemisms, which is good. While there's great value in a detailed examination of a powerful social and cultural phenomenon like this, there should be some conclusion, some cohesion, which is just lacking.

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8/27/2011

Buy Levaquin Without Prescription

Buy Levaquin Without Prescription, Stephen Turnbull, one of the most prolific and controversial writers on Japanese military history, has written a book on the 47 Samurai incident. The Samurai Archives review is quite positive, where to buy Levaquin, Levaquin long term, though Turnbull's involvement as historical consultant on the upcoming Keanu Reeves version does raise concerns.

It's nice to see Turnbull stepping up his game a bit, is Levaquin safe, Levaquin no prescription, using front-line scholarship and taking a critical approach, rather than the mish-mash of his earlier books, Levaquin pics. Cheap Levaquin, It seems unlikely to me, though, Levaquin dosage, Levaquin without a prescription, that the debunking scholarship which has advanced over the last decade or so will have a significant impact on popular versions of the incident. It's possible, buying Levaquin online over the counter, Where can i buy Levaquin online, I suppose, that Turnbull's involvement in the new movie means that it will be a thoroughly revisionist statement (( assuming that all the pre-release publicity is wrong )) but the entrenched romantic version is going to remain authoritative until the revisionist history starts to get traction in Japan, online buying Levaquin.

Even then, there's the Shakespeare problem, Buy Levaquin Without Prescription. Levaquin photos, We know that his portrayals of English kings and other historical moments were partisan and/or heavily fictionalized, but they remain some of the most enduring images and themes in historical fiction and movies, rx free Levaquin, Buy no prescription Levaquin online, so that historians are still forced to routinely debunk these myths. (( It doesn't help that "most historically accurate portrayal ever" in movie advertising usually means precisely the opposite, buy Levaquin without a prescription, Levaquin gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, as the most recent Robin Hood versions demonstrate )) Chushingura and its ilk created a solid mythology by the dawn of the modern age, and the imperialist valorization of the Ako Roshi and other self-destructive samurai tendencies reinforced a vision of the samurai as abstemious, buy Levaquin no prescription, Online buying Levaquin hcl, effective, principled, Levaquin alternatives, Levaquin price, selfless and frequently violent. It would take a dramatic cultural shift to wipe out this tradition, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Levaquin no rx, one that seems unlikely given Japan's rightward tendencies these days. (( more likely you'd see something like the American transformation of cowboy films: more internal focus and diversity, Levaquin overnight, Buy cheap Levaquin, and an obscuring of the historically undeniable negative sides (i.e., Dances with Wolves and the death of the cowboy-and-indian film) with perhaps some culturally acceptable complications, comprar en línea Levaquin, comprar Levaquin baratos. Buy Levaquin Without Prescription, Frankly, a good Brokeback Mountain treatment would go a long way, plus being historically credible. Buy Levaquin online cod, ))

I was screening movies for my Samurai course and came across recommendations (on twitter, I think) for The Twilight Samurai, kjøpe Levaquin på nett, köpa Levaquin online. Levaquin interactions, I was very impressed: the portrayal of samurai poverty, bureaucracy, Levaquin natural, Buy cheap Levaquin no rx, domainal politics, bakumatsu confusion, buy Levaquin without prescription, Levaquin without prescription, and the diversity (and, generally speaking, buy Levaquin online no prescription, Levaquin canada, mexico, india, irrelevance) of fighting styles (and illegality of dueling) was very nicely done. The romantic side was a little over-generous, doses Levaquin work, Taking Levaquin, perhaps, but more realistic that an awful lot of other historical pieces, canada, mexico, india. Levaquin use, If you're looking for a solid historical movie, one that will educate more than it will obscure, buy Levaquin from canada, Low dose Levaquin, it's very good.

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8/1/2011

Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription

What makes Louise Young's Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, such a fascinating, troubling work is that she details the way in which the Manchurian experience, and the strategic vulnerability of the Manchurian adventure, rebound into the politics and culture of Japan itself. Where can i order Wellbutrin SR without prescription, It reverses, in a way, Wellbutrin SR over the counter, Real brand Wellbutrin SR online, the traditional narratives of colonialism which see influence flowing from the metropole to the periphery rather than the other way around. And as consciousness of Manchuria became increasingly central to Japanese political and cultural identity, Wellbutrin SR duration, Wellbutrin SR steet value, Japanese politics became increasingly radical: nationalist, racialist, where can i buy Wellbutrin SR online, Wellbutrin SR alternatives, expansionist, militarist; in a word, cheap Wellbutrin SR, Buy Wellbutrin SR online no prescription, imperialist. Not that Japan wasn't an empire before that -- Taiwan, Wellbutrin SR cost, Cheap Wellbutrin SR no rx, Korea, Liaodong, after Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin SR description, and a large swath of the South Pacific attest to Japan's willingness to take control of other peoples -- or that the cultural elements weren't in place. But under the influence of the ongoing crisis in Manchuria, purchase Wellbutrin SR online no prescription, Wellbutrin SR interactions, a crisis experienced by many who travelled there, worked there, online buying Wellbutrin SR hcl, Wellbutrin SR class, and seen and heard through music, movies and other outlets, what is Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin SR for sale, liberal alternatives like internationalism became unpalatable, even unacceptable, Wellbutrin SR no rx. If you're tied to the usual nation-bound histories of culture and politics, and the one-way influence of the standard metropole-periphery model, this is a paradigm-shifting piece of scholarship, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Wellbutrin SR maximum dosage, As Albert Szent-Gyorgyi said, "Research is to see what everybody else has seen, buy Wellbutrin SR from canada, Wellbutrin SR reviews, and to think what nobody else has thought."

I thought of Young's work when I read this NYT profile of David Yerushalmi, one of the architects and driving forces behind the anti-Shariah movement in the United States, Wellbutrin SR brand name. Wellbutrin SR dose, Yerushalmi's radically political and hostile view of Islam have become common-place opinions in certain segments of the US political spectrum -- primarily Republican, Tea Party, Wellbutrin SR blogs, Comprar en línea Wellbutrin SR, comprar Wellbutrin SR baratos, Buchananite Isolationist, Dominionist and similar groups -- and have been put into legislative form in Oklahoma, Wellbutrin SR results, Wellbutrin SR recreational, as well as as other states. Especially in the context of US involvement in the Middle East, online Wellbutrin SR without a prescription, Generic Wellbutrin SR, the specific focus of the xenophobia against the very kinds of people who are the target of US policy, the anxiety about subversion by global networks of muslims based on the statements and actions of a radicalized few, effects of Wellbutrin SR, Order Wellbutrin SR no prescription, really does remind me of the Japanese turn in the 1920s and 1930s against communism, socialism and anarchism, my Wellbutrin SR experience, Wellbutrin SR images, against the Korean and Chinese activists, and their Japanese allies, Wellbutrin SR canada, mexico, india, Wellbutrin SR from mexico, who were the strongest proponents of those theories.

What really fascinated me about the profile, Wellbutrin SR coupon, Online buying Wellbutrin SR, though, was Yerushalmi's background, online buy Wellbutrin SR without a prescription. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, Or rather, a combination of his background and the way in which the article glided over the interesting bits.

His interest in Islamic law began with the Sept. 11 attacks, he said, when he was living in Ma’ale Adumim, a large Jewish settlement in the Israeli-occupied West Bank.

At the time, Mr. Yerushalmi, a native of South Florida, divided his energies between a commercial litigation practice in the United States and a conservative research institute based in Jerusalem, where he worked to promote free-market reform in Israel.

After moving to Brooklyn the following year, Mr. Yerushalmi said he began studying Arabic and Shariah under two Islamic scholars, whom he declined to name.

He is an American Hasidic Jew -- literally the third thing we learn about him after his name and age -- and lawyer, hostile to the secular socialist roots of Israel (( Note that the "conservative research institute" isn't named, begging the question of whose definition of "conservative" the reporter is using in this description. )) who suddenly became troubled by the nature of Islam after the 9/11 attacks, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription.

Maybe. But I don't think that it's coincidental that Yerushalmi was an American living in Israel -- a state often described as an agent of American power in the Middle East (( though I think "stalking horse" or "scapegoat" might be more precise )) and in particular living in an areas which is easily (and I think fairly) described as an Israeli colonial territory. I think it's more likely that the experience of living in occupied territory radicalized him, hardened his views on Islam. He was engaged in a struggle at the frontier of civilization, in his own mind, when members of a group he already percieved as the enemy struck at his homeland, to which he returned to share his hard-won perspective on the issues. And because of the shock of that attack, compounded by the ongoing challenge of war overseas and economic troubles, he found people receptive to his message of a subversive force at work in the world, an existential conflict.

Being an empire means having peripheries, and those peripheries are going to have troubles, in no small part because of their relationship with the metropole. But mistaking the tensions of the periphery for an existential crisis is the kind of lack of perspective which signals weak leadership, a distorted public sphere, and a high probability of escalating sunken cost fallacies driving policy.

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6/2/2011

Temovate Cream For Sale

Lego Ninja 2011 B1 Temovate Cream For Sale, Mary Pope Osborne's Magic Tree House series is intended to educate and entertain by taking its protagonists to different times and places, real and mythical. These Scholastic books are mainstays of schools, libraries, and primary curricula, and some of the books have companion "Research Guide" publications for kids who want to know more about the historical, real brand Temovate Cream online, cultural or scientific background. Some of these books are aimed at early readers: the first 28 in the series are short, with short, Temovate Cream from canada, simple sentences appropriate to 1st or 2nd graders; after that the series shifts into the slightly more fantastical "Merlin Mission" mode, longer stories with more complex writing suitable for 2nd or 3rd grade students; the research guides seem to be aimed at 2nd through 4th graders. (( Check the Scholastic web site for official suitability levels. Also if you have any doubt about the fact that these are aimed at an education audience.... )) In these stories, Jack and Annie are given a book which, combined with the magic of the tree house, takes them to a time and place where they can carry out a mission of some kind, while learning about the site of their adventure, Temovate Cream For Sale. The whole thing is supposed to be an encouragement to learning, comprar en línea Temovate Cream, comprar Temovate Cream baratos, so to speak, showing the value of book reading. Twice in the series, Temovate Cream images, Jack and Annie have visited Japanese history: in the earlier, shorter work, we get nature-loving ninja and threatening samurai; in the later adventure, we get the nature-loving poet Basho, a magical dragon, Temovate Cream online cod, and threatening samurai. (( I could put a spoiler alert here, but how many 2nd-4th graders are reading this blog, Temovate Cream pics, who haven't already moved beyond Jack and Annie adventures. Well, my son wants to read this post when I'm finished with it, but other than him. ))

Temovate Cream For Sale, The text that Jack and Annie work from -- more Jack than Annie: he's the cautious, bookish one, and she's the impulsive, intuitive one -- gives an explicit frame to the story, and the book is never wrong. Because of Annie's impulsiveness, Temovate Cream no rx, they never get to read through the book carefully, but look up facts as they become relevant: the facts are short, context-free chunks of information that usually explain what the characters are seeing, Buy Temovate Cream from canada, and remembering these bits often comes in handy at critical moments. In addition to the books they read, they often get guidance from people they meet: many of the adventures feature a "local informant" who helps them navigate local custom and landscape and often is critical to their larger mission; usually they are supposed to return to the Magic Tree House with a specific item or piece of information. (( Missions are part of larger projects: the series is built around four-book units which share a problem and theme. Jack and Annie accumulate skills and credentials over the series, Temovate Cream class. This makes up for the fact that the individual books are very short, and acculturates young readers to longer works, Temovate Cream For Sale. That's the general idea, anyway. )) As with the books that bring them to these times and places, Temovate Cream results, their local informants are never wrong, either, though sometimes they misjudge Jack or, more often, Annie, Temovate Cream use. (( I suspect that most of my readers at this point are either familiar with the series, or have stopped reading. But I want to establish the authority of the voices: readers of the series are acculturated, Temovate Cream for sale, if they read more than one or two, to accept the authority of the guiding book and teachers. ))

The first Japan adventure is Night of the Ninjas Temovate Cream For Sale, (( Book 5, published in 1995 by Random House, with illustrations by Sal Murdocca. )) in which Jack and Annie return to an unidentified moment in Japan's medieval period. Here's what their book has to say about it:

  • "Very little is known about the shadowy warriors called ninjas. Historians believe that ninjas lived in Japan between the 14th and 17th centuries, order Temovate Cream from United States pharmacy. Both men and women were ninjas. Sometimes they fought to protect their families, Temovate Cream For Sale. Sometimes warlords hired them to be spies." (15-16)

  • "Sometimes ninjas held meetings in hidden mountain caves to plan secret missions." (31)

  • "Ninjas took orders from a ninja master. The master was a mysterious wise person who knew many secrets of nature." (31)

  • "The samurai were fierce Japanese fighters. Fast shipping Temovate Cream, They carried two swords to cut down their enemies." (45)

This is the most authoritative information Jack and Annie have available, and the vast majority of it is entirely incorrect. Ninja -- the black-suited nemesis of samurai living an independent existence in the hills, etc. -- are a Temovate Cream For Sale, figment of early modern imaginations built on a sliver of truth, reified by modern martial artists' pseudo-historical self-justifications and entertainment industries more than willing to dramatize and amplify the mythologies for fun and profit. (( And, about Temovate Cream, as with most Japanese nouns, the plural of "ninja" is "ninja" not "ninjas" )) The myth of hostility between ninja and samurai, though, Buy Temovate Cream no prescription, runs through a lot of Japanese historical fiction. (( And is almost certainly based on self-serving mythologies of post-pacification samurai )) (38) The idea of the ninja as a kind of eco-warrior seems to be a relatively new addition to the mythology: it's an interesting way of working "harmony with nature" into this Japanese narrative:

"Remember three things," said the master..."Use nature. Be nature. Follow nature." (38)

The nature-ninja turns the samurai into a kind of modernist nightmare, is Temovate Cream addictive. (( The picture on p, Temovate Cream For Sale. 46 is the only time they are depicted visually )) But samurai, described in the book as "fierce," are all bark and no bite: their armor is made of "bamboo" (45), Temovate Cream description, they wander around the woods at night with torches looking for ninja (37, 58), and they can be fooled by a kid in a hoodie pretending to be a rock. (48-49)

In Dragon of the Red Dawn (( Book 37, Scholastic, rx free Temovate Cream, 2007 )) samurai are also a threat, again in a distinctly modernist mode, because of the ban on foreigners. Buy no prescription Temovate Cream online, As their guidebook "A Journey to Old Japan" (7) (( Complete with pseudo-bamboo typography )) says,

  • "The late 1600s in Japan were years of peace and prosperity. Art and culture thrived. Temovate Cream For Sale, But it was a time when the country was completely closed to the outside world. No one was allowed to come in. The citizens of Edo were frequently checked to make sure they had passports." (15-16)

  • "Anyone who did not have a passport was considered a spy and punished severely." (16)

All samurai, Temovate Cream interactions, in this version of Genroku Japan, are police agents: the only samurai who are mentioned are either former samurai, like the poet Basho, Buy Temovate Cream online no prescription, or some form of patrolling security who are quick to draw their swords and challenge people who are out of place. (21, 42, passim) Basho tells Jack and Annie that "You must remember, seek harmony with your surroundings, my Temovate Cream experience. ... Observe the people of Edo and do as they do, Temovate Cream For Sale. If you do not stand out, you will not be noticed by the samurai." (25-26) Jack and Annie have to learn how to use chopsticks -- while eating makizushi, Temovate Cream natural, which it's a little early for -- under the gaze of samurai who are on the lookout for foreigners. (42) Oddly, the samurai they face suspect them because of where they are but not how they look, whereas Basho can tell immediately that they are foreigners; this may be part of the magic of the tree house, which also gives them appropriate clothing and gear and skips right over language issues, Temovate Cream brand name. (25, etc.) In spite of the fact that Jack and Annie repeatedly come under suspicion of being spies, the samurai questioning them are thrice convinced that they are merely poetry apprentices (22, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, 48-52, 96-98) who do not need to show their passports, twice by extemporizing poetry. (( including, I regret to inform you, buy generic Temovate Cream, "Twinkle, twinkle, little star." Basho likes it. ))

Temovate Cream For Sale, In addition to their simple duties and simple-mindedness, samurai are part of a very simple political system. Temovate Cream alternatives, As often happens, Osborne has conflated the past and present, Shogunal and Imperial institutions. Here's what "A Journey to Old Japan" says:

  • "In the 1600s, the Imperial Garden surrounded the Imperial Palace in the capital city of Japan, Temovate Cream reviews. The city was called Edo (Say EE-doh). In the mid-1800s, its name was changed to Tokyo (Say TOH-kee-oh.)" (14)

  • "In the 1600s, Kjøpe Temovate Cream på nett, köpa Temovate Cream online, the military ruler known as the shogun (say SHOW-gun) lived in the center of the Imperial Garden in a palace that had hundreds of rooms." (17)

  • "Often the shogun's warriors traveled with him. They were called samurai (Say SAM-uh-rye)." .., Temovate Cream For Sale. "Samurai were excellent horsemen well trained in the arts of fighting. The code of the samurai was strict. Samurai did not show their feelings. They had great powers of concentration." (18)

There's a pronunciation error, taking Temovate Cream, the elimination of daimyo from the political picture, the bushido stoicism and assumption that all samurai are the same, and the confusion engendered by referring to the Shogunal keep by its modern title. Temovate Cream For Sale, Osborne carefully refers to the Shogun as "the military ruler" but doesn't explain the distinction between the Shogunal and Imperial institutions or note that the castle and grounds were not considered "Imperial" until the 1860s. Purchase Temovate Cream,

But the samurai are just an obstacle: the heart of the story is poetry, fire and magic. Despite their failings, Basho admits "Yes, the samurai greatly honor the art of poetry, buying Temovate Cream online over the counter. Poetry helps focus the mind. The samurai believe a truly brave warrior should be able to compose a poem even in the midst of an earthquake, or while facing an enemy on the battlefield." (61) Basho instructs the children in the art of haiku (( though without any of that picky stuff like syllables or turning words, Temovate Cream wiki, or seasonal indicators )) and shares the frog pond verse which he wrote just yesterday, even giving Jack the piece of paper on which the world's most famous haiku is written. (62) The guide book tells us that "Basho is one of Japan's greatest poets, Temovate Cream For Sale. He wrote short, beautiful poems that speak to people as clearly today as they did during the Edo period of Japan." (59) Some of them certainly do: Basho has about the same linguistic issues as Shakespeare, namely that he's one of the writers whose work shaped the early modern language, order Temovate Cream online c.o.d, but idiom and usage have changed over time.

Unlike Night of the Ninjas, this book has a precise historical moment. Temovate Cream forum, Or, rather, several precise moments: the frog poem was written in 1686, but the main action of the book focuses on the fire that destroyed Basho's home in 1682, after which he embarked on his famous travels, buy Temovate Cream online cod. Also, the cherry blossoms are blooming. Temovate Cream For Sale, Aren't they always. Anyway, Canada, mexico, india, on their first walk through the city, Basho notes the drought-like conditions and remembers the 1657 Meireki Fire. (( They also see puppet plays on "a row of stages built along the riverbank" (36) ))

"When the weather is very dry, the people of Edo worry about fire. .., online Temovate Cream without a prescription. Twenty-five years ago, during a dry spell, half our city was destroyed by a terrible fire. Thousands died." (30)

Probably a hundred thousand or more, Temovate Cream For Sale. Temovate Cream long term, But there's an up-side to fires, he says later:

"I suppose that is why the ancients called our fires 'the flowers of Edo.' ... After something is destroyed by fire, a good new thing often takes its place. Just as after the bleakest winter, beautiful flowers return with the spring." (89)

This is not, of course, the actual source of the "flowers of Edo" idiom, which is both relatively recent at that time instead of "ancient", and sarcastic rather than heartening. But Basho himself endured several fires that destroyed his home, and did take the opportunity to travel, producing some of his greatest work (including the above-mentioned poem) as a result.

Temovate Cream For Sale, When the fire breaks out, Jack and Annie join the citizens of Edo fighting the fires - no mention of the competitive firefighting teams, their uniforms or equipment, just people with buckets - and then draw on their magic to invoke the Cloud Dragon, "one of the guardian animals of the four directions. She has the power of flight and commands the rain clouds." (37) Though a very minor figure in Japanese astrology, the Cloud Dragon answers their call with a drenching rain.

There are a few interesting touches: yo-yos, which are a long-standing Japanese toy; hot towels at meals; sumo wrestling as entertainment, though it's unlikely that Genroku-era wrestlers would have been 400+ pounds. (38, 39, 46)

But as educational materials, these books represent a huge step backwards, a terribly wasted opportunity. According to the Wikipedia page, these books have been translated, along with most of the series, into Japanese. I can only imagine what the Japanese thought of them.


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5/29/2011

Ketoconazole Cream For Sale

The third installment of Chris Bradford's Young Samurai Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, series shifts modes mid-book, when the action moves from the original Harry Potter-esque bildungsroman mode to the tragic -- Young Jack is on the side of the Toyotomi, as it turns out -- Battle of Osaka.


[More Spoilers Ahead] (( I don't really consider that a spoiler; it's an actual event. Knowing how things turn out is fundamental to historical work. Though I must concede that Bradford's willingness to mess with the timeline does raise some doubt. ))


The book is considerably longer than the first two installments, australia, uk, us, usa, a common feature of end-of-series climaxes, and continues with the cultural and historical bad habits noted in the first two works. Ketoconazole Cream trusted pharmacy reviews, (( The Way of the Warrior and The Way of the Sword. Also, the book jacket copy is unchanged, Ketoconazole Cream For Sale. )) At least, being a climactic moment, many of the historical alterations are clarified -- if not well justified, buy cheap Ketoconazole Cream no rx. There are two substantial changes to the historical record, which explain most of the other distortions: postponing the Tokugawa dominion of Japan until after the Battle of Osaka, Order Ketoconazole Cream from mexican pharmacy, and transforming the banning of Christianity into xenophobic nationalism and a popular movement, rather than a geo-political calculation. (( Needless to say, the historical changes require substantial alterations to the characters of many historical figures, no prescription Ketoconazole Cream online. One can only hope that the bad pseudonyms shield young readers from connecting these caricatures with real people. Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, At one point, the Miyamoto Musashi stand-in orders Jack to commit seppuku, then retracts it and calls it a "little joke." (72) )) And ninja. Lots of ninja. Ketoconazole Cream pictures, I'm going to focus on the historiographical oddities this time, though I reserve the right to note new contextual and literary failings.

The action in this book runs from 1613 through the end of the Battle of Osaka, though the two campaigns are collapsed into a single sequence of battles mostly focused on the Battle of Tennōji, (( very simplified, buy Ketoconazole Cream without a prescription, minus cavalry, with the addition of super-soldier elite troops )) a little Winter Truce interlude, Is Ketoconazole Cream addictive, (( So the Tokugawa side can be made to look even more treacherous (350) )) and the subsequent fall of Himeji Castle. The historical timeline leading up to this point is still a little murky in my mind, but it seems that the Battle of Sekigahara (( called Nakasendo here, after the highway )) was the final battle in Toyotomi Hideyoshi's unification campaign, my Ketoconazole Cream experience, after which he died, resulting in a surprisingly stable Council of Regents. Cheap Ketoconazole Cream no rx, (( And no invasion of Korea. )) (166-168) The Toyotomi (( called "Hasegawa" )) house is the Imperial house, suggesting either that the imperial institution had a continuous martial tradition (( And Hideyoshi, then wasn't a commoner, Ketoconazole Cream For Sale. )) or that Hideyoshi actually took that last step (( and given his pretensions to divinity, why not. It's always a little tricky explaining to students why and how the imperial institution survived this era )) and supplanted the Imperial house, where to buy Ketoconazole Cream. (( Oddly, the living Hasegawa, Ordering Ketoconazole Cream online, Toyotomi Hideyori's stand-in, is referred to as the "heir apparent" (167) which would mean that the throne is empty, which never happened. Child emperors with regencies were SOP, purchase Ketoconazole Cream online no prescription. Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, Also, "royal geisha." (126) )) The Battle of Osaka, then, is the real Sekigahara, (( Or Dan-no-ura, given the echoes of the Gempei war created by conflating the samurai and aristocratic traditions. (217, 308, Buy generic Ketoconazole Cream, etc.) )) though with the added element of having the Hideyoshi house actually participating. In this rendition, the Hideyoshi/Imperial heir is the "good guy" (also Christian): the Tokugawa house is a usurper whose forces are made up of opportunists, racists and ronin, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. (( In the actual war of 1614-15, it's the Toyotomi forces which were miscellaneous odds and ends, Generic Ketoconazole Cream, including ronin who, if they weren't samurai, we'd more properly call mercenaries. )) Also, Ketoconazole Cream forum, it was Tokugawa/Lord Kamakura's decision to switch sides which determined the result of the Nakasendo battle, and we all know that switching sides is something that honorable samurai warlords never did. (82, 168) A literary rendition of the early 1600s from the Toyotomi perspective could be powerful stuff, exploration of still-unstable political and ethical ethos and real tragedy, Ketoconazole Cream For Sale. Ketoconazole Cream natural, Needless to say, that's not what we've got here.

I suppose the vision of the Tokugawa house as religious and racial chauvinists could also be a matter of perspective: it's true that the expulsion of Christianity from Japan was a violent process, though I don't remember any sources that describe it as any sort of popular movement. (( A lot of people outside of the xenophobic movement spend a lot of time being mildly racist (47, Ketoconazole Cream pharmacy, 55, 158) and apparently there's a neutral term for foreigner -- gaijin is considered derogatory -- but we're never told what it is. Ketoconazole Cream pics, (129) )) In fact, in Bradford's Japan, the Buddhist and Shinto religious leadership whom you'd expect to be at the forefront of an anti-foreign movement are largely agnostic on the question of Christianity. Also, Ketoconazole Cream reviews, oddly, the Tokugawa-ish Kamakura house never rhetorically connects the anti-foreign and anti-Toyotomi movements, Comprar en línea Ketoconazole Cream, comprar Ketoconazole Cream baratos, though the fact that the "heir apparent" is a Christian (308) and working closely with the subversive Jesuits (320) would make it eminently sensible for them to use it as leverage; really, they're just mean. Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, (( Their children are thuggish punks; their elite forces are implacable, nameless; and they don't respect culture. Also, they use legalistic tactics, Ketoconazole Cream results. (350) )) The descriptions of the anti-Christian movement resemble the Boxer Rebellion or 1930s Germany more than the actual historical events which left non-Catholic foreigners alone. (253) I've said it before, Ketoconazole Cream wiki, and I'll say it again here: the actual historical events are more than sufficiently dramatic to be interesting; distorting them through a modern pseudo-fascist lens is gilding the lily, at best. Curiously, the anti-foreign Tokugawa forces are much better equipped with firearms and cannon than the Jesuit-supported Toyotomi side, buy no prescription Ketoconazole Cream online. (335, 392, etc.) (( And Jack, who is supposed to be more experienced in these matters, apparently doesn't realize that well-trained military forces know how to keep their powder dry in wet conditions and can keep using firearms and cannon in the rain, Ketoconazole Cream For Sale. (390) ))

The identity of the über-ninja Dokuganryu is revealed early on in the book (50-51), and while I'm sure this was intentional from the beginning, Ketoconazole Cream pictures, I still think that Bradford both missed an opportunity and did great damage to the biography of historical figures. Actually, the identity would have been obvious if I had paid more attention to the common nicknames of daimyo, because the "One-Eyed Dragon" moniker is associated with smallpox-scarred Date Masamune, Ketoconazole Cream without a prescription, whose disfigurement and family history the character share. However, Buy Ketoconazole Cream without prescription, Bradford changes the name to Hattori, a name associated in real life with both ninja and the Tokugawa house, taking Date's life in a very strange direction at the time of Sekigahara, (( using the kagemusha dodge to allow him to appear dead while he joins the ninja (424), australia, uk, us, usa, becomes an undefeatable assassin who somehow keeps losing. )) and ignoring the real history and character of Date Masamune himself, Ketoconazole Cream price, who lived and served the Tokugawa ably into the 1630s. Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, In this version, the ninja pulls the strings, using the xenophobia of the Kamakura/Tokugawa as leverage to take vengeance on the Toyotomi/Hasegawa and Masamoto/Miyamoto.

In the end, the vast majority of the characters die in battle, which is likely to be somewhat emotionally wrenching given the Harry Potterish way in which nobody important dies (after the initial onslaught that orphans Jack) despite spending two and a half books playing with weapons, Ketoconazole Cream canada, mexico, india, attempting deadly challenges and fighting off ninja. Even the super-ninja Dokuganryu appears to die, Buy Ketoconazole Cream from mexico, though Jack doesn't have time to verify the ninja's death, which takes the combined effort of both a ninja-trained young woman (( among the least-surprising reveals of the book )) and a number of other of Jack's colleagues. However, the survival of Jack (plus his romantic interest, order Ketoconazole Cream online overnight delivery no prescription, of course) means sequels, (( at least three, Ketoconazole Cream online cod, apparently detailing Jack's attempt to get to Nagasaki and escape Japan )) and sequels means that Jack needs a worthy enemy. Jack's chief student nemesis also survives; like Gollum, due to the mercy of the protagonist (473). In an amusingly implausible bit of historical preservation, Masamoto/Miyamoto survives his Horatio-at-the-bridge last stand and is forced into retirement by the Tokugawa/Kamakura: he takes the tonsure, which will allow him to do the writing he's always wanted, Ketoconazole Cream For Sale. (( Oddly, purchase Ketoconazole Cream, however, his home is not under surveillance after the battle, Ketoconazole Cream blogs, which allows Jack an avenue of escape that really wouldn't exist if the Tokugawa were as effective and powerful as they're portrayed here. ))

There are two new cultural themes which are bad enough to deserve note. First, swords get seriously weird, Ketoconazole Cream no rx. Swords in Bradford's milieu have the makers' names stamped on the blade, rather than hidden on the tang. Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, (29-30, 75) Swords have characters which affect their wielders, and evil ones demand blood before resheathing. Order Ketoconazole Cream from mexican pharmacy, (29, 35-38, 48, 375) Finally, Ketoconazole Cream class, the sharper the blade, the more effective: in some ways that's true, Ketoconazole Cream without prescription, certainly, but a sharper blade doesn't make you a better fighter. (433) Second, poetry is a running theme, and while Bradford uses some actual works from the period, (( Historical poet Saigyo is called on to judge the contest. (197) )) the poetry competition is themeless and the poems prepared beforehand. (234, etc.) And at one point a Japanese character turns Aesop's Tortoise and Hare into a haiku. (143) Poetry is associated with women (100, 147) and with the "soft, cultured features of a nobleman" (83-85) though most of the major (and minor) poets of the age were samurai-born men, Ketoconazole Cream For Sale. (( Since the imperial institution is conflated with the warlords, I'm not sure where these "soft" noblemen come from, either. ))

Finally, for a work written by a martial artist, the descriptions of combat and battle are still oddly bad. Early on, an arrow passes "within a hair's-breadth of his heart" (18) though clearly Jack doesn't get a near-fatal chest wound at that point, not even a scratch. At one point "A cold steel blade was pressed against Jack's throat" (150) though he had a cloth sack over his head which usually makes this sort of thing difficult. Ketoconazole Cream For Sale, In a climactic scene, an arrow is shot through a hand which is holding a sword handle (473), an unlikely shot, at best. The elite Red Guard of the Kamakura/Tokugawa, vicious and effective warriors who give no quarter, are described late in the battle as "mean-looking." (447) There are other little things: siege engines which are never described or used (405), the inexplicable explanatory chat break in the middle of a raging battle (377), the kiai shout as a mystical attack speciality of sohei warrior-monks (177), distinction between ashigaru, ronin and samurai (151, 159). (( My favorite example is when one character challenges another to action with "Are you ashigaru or samurai?" (361) ))

Works like the Young Samurai series claim to be originalist, purist representations of a fine culture, but really they are presentist projections of ahistorical apologia which apparently require not just revisionism, but wholesale historical reorganization to be credible. Some of these changes are probably justified, in Bradford's mind, as simplifications: the dual Emperor/Shogun system is a little counter-intuitive, and having the greatest samurai of the age participate in a civil war for less than pure, honorable reasons would obviate the martial culture Bradford is promoting. These are, at best, excuses and rationalizations, rather than adequate reasons. As I said before, no disclaimer can excuse a presentation this far removed from reality claiming educational value. At least, having read the books, I feel a little more prepared for the onslaught of error I'm going to be seeing in my students' work and the popular press.


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3/7/2011

Celexa For Sale

Filed under: — Morgan Pitelka @ 9:20 pm Print

I've been absent from Frog in a Well for some time for reasons I explain here Celexa For Sale, , so feel a bit rusty at this. Celexa recreational, But I was inspired by my receipt of the new University of Hawai'i Press catalog in Japanese studies (pdf) to write something. Full disclosure: I have published two books with the UH Press and hope to publish more, is Celexa addictive, Celexa dose, so mine is by no means an unbiased opinion, but I was really impressed by the depth of the offerings, Celexa canada, mexico, india. Celexa online cod, I'm used to seeing interesting literature and cultural history books. For 2011, Celexa long term, Celexa schedule, a number of historians of premodern Japan publish books that many of us have been anticipating for years. Andrew Goble's book Confluences of Medicine in Medieval Japan: Buddhist Healing, Chinese Knowledge, Islamic Formulas, and Wounds of War arrives this year, the first comprehensive exploration of medical history in medieval Japan, Celexa For Sale. My sempai Haruko Wakabayashi publishes Tengu and the Rhetoric of Legitimacy in Medieval Japanese Buddhism, Celexa wiki, Where can i cheapest Celexa online, another book I've been looking forward to for years. In a similar vein is Hank Glassman's much anticipated The Face of Jizô: Image and Cult in Medieval Japanese Buddhism, Celexa dangers. Purchase Celexa, Another sempai, Luke Roberts, where can i buy Celexa online, Celexa from mexico, has a new book out as well: Performing the Great Peace: Political Space and Open Secrets in Tokugawa Japan, a study of "spatial autonomy, Celexa from canadian pharmacy, Celexa description, ritual submission, and informal negotiation" in Tokugawa politics, Celexa overnight. Buy Celexa online no prescription, Some similarly exciting offerings in early modern Japanese studies include Phil Brown's Cultivating Commons: Joint Ownership of Arable Land in Early Modern Japan and Timon Screech's Obtaining Images: Art, Production, herbal Celexa, Buy Celexa from mexico, and Display in Edo Japan. Many more titles can be found on modern subjects, Celexa pharmacy, Buy Celexa without a prescription, including shôjô manga, girl's culture, low dose Celexa, Purchase Celexa for sale, Ainu spirits, Western painting in Japan, is Celexa safe, Order Celexa no prescription, Buddhist clerical marriage, parks, Celexa steet value, Taking Celexa, the Burakumin, Okinawa, Celexa without prescription, Celexa interactions, and The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. This is just one slice of the various layers of our field, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Celexa no prescription, but its richness is encouraging. Australia, uk, us, usa. Celexa cost. Purchase Celexa online no prescription. Celexa over the counter. Rx free Celexa. Celexa trusted pharmacy reviews. Kjøpe Celexa på nett, köpa Celexa online. Celexa dosage. Cheap Celexa.

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10/17/2010

Flexeril For Sale

Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 3:28 pm Print

The inestimable Rob MacDougall is running a course on Digital History Flexeril For Sale, , and even better, he's running it more or less publicly. I'm getting all kinds of ideas here. About Flexeril, On the other hand, it sometimes raises surprising problems. The unit on Data Visualization includes an assigned reading that looked like something I might use for historiography, Flexeril coupon, David Staley, Taking Flexeril, Computers, Visualization, and History: How New Technology Will Transform Our Understanding of the Past (M.E, Flexeril long term. Sharpe, Flexeril for sale, 2003). But when I started looking through it, the first 'data visualization' presented was an illustration of Japanese history from William McNeill's 1963 The Rise of the West that made my teeth clench, Flexeril For Sale. Rob asked me to explain what's wrong with it, which is fair, herbal Flexeril.

The caption reads

In addition to information about costume, Flexeril gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, architecture, and other forms of material culture, the figures in the diagram convey meaningful information through gesture and body language, Flexeril used for, the shading of figures, Where can i order Flexeril without prescription, their relative sizes, and their location in the diagram


That's all true, as far as it goes, Flexeril dangers. The problem, Flexeril natural, of course, is whether the diagram is conveying accurate and clear information, and on both accounts it fails, canada, mexico, india. I realize that I'm being a little unfair: the McNeill book was a survey text written almost a half-century ago, Flexeril steet value, and the diagram is being used as an example of potential; it's not being cited as an up-to-date description of Japanese history that would be acceptable today. Flexeril For Sale, Still, it's worth talking about.

Here's the image:


It turns out that the McNeill book was chock-full of these little gems, and there is a substantial section - given that the book is Western-oriented - devoted to Japanese history, buy cheap Flexeril. Even for 1963, Flexeril online cod, there are clear errors and overstatements - "the vigorous vulgarity of Hideyoshi's age" (649) is probably my favorite line, especially as McNeill blames it for the later development of Kabuki, Geisha, Flexeril no rx, Bunraku and Genroku culture - and this diagram does not really help. Order Flexeril online overnight delivery no prescription, The focus is on European influence in the world, so the political structure of Japan in this period is really secondary: the diagram is, I think, Flexeril from canadian pharmacy, intended to fill in some of the structural gaps left by the text, Cheap Flexeril no rx, which seems like a very weak use of a complex diagram. It probably also should be viewed in the context of the other diagrams of the book: there's a visual vocabulary here that I'm not going to be able to read the way that McNeill's readers do.


Still, flaws in the diagram jump out at me, Flexeril brand name, and here's a short list, Order Flexeril from mexican pharmacy, in no particular order, of problems

  • The headgear. The Emperor wears a papal mitre, probably because of the early (incorrect) descriptions of the Emperor as being a sort of religious potentate, in contrast to the secular authority of shoguns, Flexeril For Sale. The samurai and pirates (!) wear courtiers' hats, doses Flexeril work, and the Buddhist monks have hair (and beards, My Flexeril experience, I think) which are more Fu Manchu than ... well, Buddhist monks were bald and samurai rarely wore hats over their topknots.

  • The Villages, buy Flexeril online cod. First, After Flexeril, why do the Tokugawa villages have trees (and mountains in the background, I think) and pre-Tokugawa villages have only houses (on flat plains). Even if there's a real distinction being made here, where can i cheapest Flexeril online, it's completely obscure. Flexeril For Sale, Second, the lines of authority in the Tokugawa period are questionable -- there's no visual distinction between the trade/migration links with towns on the one hand, and the authority lines from the samurai, unless those arrows mean more to McNeill's readers than they do to me -- but at least the villages are actually connected to something, whereas the pre-Tokugawa villages appear to be ahistorically independent, or irrelevant. Flexeril interactions,

  • Buddhist Monks. The pre-Tokugawa diagram casts them as a fundamentally disruptive element, equal in weight to samurai - though Samurai appear twice in the diagram, purchase Flexeril online no prescription, perhaps to emphasize those who borrowed technology and religion from the West (though those weren't either identical nor exclusive categories). Cheap Flexeril, It also puts their label in a place where it could apply to either the Buddhist Monk figure or the Emperor. The Tokugawa diagram eliminates them entirely when, in fact, buy Flexeril online no prescription, Buddhism remained integral to Japan's religious culture after it's political/military defeats and, Discount Flexeril, more importantly, Buddhist temples' family and religious registration systems were a critical institution of rule connecting the Shogunate to localities (mediated through the daimyo)

  • Civil War. Aside from the problems above, though the diagram does suggest hierarchy in Tokugawa-era samurai (by size, as the caption says), there's no indication in the pre-Tokugawa diagram that the samurai were fighting against each other: all the forces at work in the Civil War era appear to be attacking the Emperor, including the pirates who didn't even participate in the civil wars at all, primarily being focused (as the text says, actually) on attacking Chinese shipping, Flexeril For Sale. There doesn't seem to be a distinction between the dancing pirates and the towns, Flexeril forum, either, Flexeril description, which is exceedingly odd.

  • Towns. Aside from being pirate havens (not!), buy cheap Flexeril no rx, Japan appears to have no actual cities in this period, Flexeril wiki, but they did have city walls (not!). Also, towns come under direct control of the Shogun in the Tokugawa era, order Flexeril no prescription, represented oddly by their appearing on one side of a balance scale held by the Shogun along with the samurai, Online buying Flexeril, rather than distinguishing between world-class cities under shogunal authority (Edo, Osaka, Kyoto) and the hundreds of other castle towns and other urban areas under daimyo control, where to buy Flexeril.

  • Flexeril For Sale, Jesuits. In this diagram, Online buy Flexeril without a prescription, Jesuits stand in for all Westerners - at least the Spanish and Portuguese, Jesuits and Franciscans expelled from Japan by the Shogunal exclusion edicts of the 1630s.


That's most of it, Flexeril blogs, I think. The diagram, in the end, conveys almost no true information that isn't better handled in the text. There's a reason why history textbooks, once the technology allowed cheaper reproduction at higher quality, have gotten away from these kind of pseudo-artistic schematics and replaced them with maps, artwork and photographs: the danger of interposing inauthentic material is less. Not nonexistent, obviously, but at least students have a chance to see the evidence for themselves, instead of having it filtered through an artist who may or may not know anything about the history or culture being portrayed at the behest of an historian who many not have a strong sense of the visual aspects of the history or culture being portrayed, Flexeril For Sale. It's actually very hard to convey a lot of accurate information visually without a great deal of textual background and explanation. Don't get me wrong: I love good visuals. One of my prize possessions is a Japanese book of historical diagrams and images for Japanese history: it's intended as a supplement to a middle-school or high-school history text, but many of the diagrams have never been reproduced in English as far as I know. It covers economic, military and cultural history, and I use it in my Japanese history classes quite regularly, but (aside from the fact that the labels are in Japanese) what makes the diagrams work is that they don't try to convey everything in a single image. It's too much.

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8/30/2010

Inderal For Sale

Reading The Way of the Sword Inderal For Sale, while listening to the "Restoring Honor" event, I began to wonder if our current shift to discourses of honor and warriors is a side effect of the ubiquity of martial arts in the US over the last 35 years. The values of martial arts, even the most modern ones, No prescription Inderal online, include personal and collective honor in ways that were, for a long time, rather absent in most American rhetoric. Sarah Palin said "If you look for the virtues that have sustained our country, purchase Inderal, you will find them in those who wear the uniform, who take the oath, Inderal long term, who pay the price for our freedom." That's as good a paraphrase of the Imperial Rescript for Soldiers and Sailors as I've ever heard from an American politician.

The cultural and historical problems which made Young Samurai: The Way of the Warrior such a weak hash of Harry Potter plotting and dojo delusions persist in the second book of the trilogy. Like the first volume, it's a quick read, Inderal blogs, probably most suitable for middle school/junior high readers, though older readers with an interest in the martial arts won't find it childish. Historians of Japan, however, will find this gaijin-boy-in-early-Edo tale a test of character not unlike the one the protagonist faces: to get through it, you must ignore exhaustion, overcome moments of sharp pain, focus on the goal, and achieve a state of no-mind..., Inderal For Sale. Inderal forum, [spoilers ahead, of course, though the fact that it's the middle part of a trilogy probably tells you most of what you need to know.]

As I said in my review of the last book, there is a lot of anachronism here regarding samurai culture, online buying Inderal, in particular the transposition of a fully-developed Hagakure-style bushido and 20th century dojo culture into early 17th century Japan. The books, Inderal natural, after all, chronicle the adventures of a teenage English boy orphaned and marooned when ninja kill his father in Japan. Jack is adopted into the Miyamoto Musashi-like Masamoto Takeshi's family, and begins his training as a samurai in Masamoto's Two-Sword Kyoto School, australia, uk, us, usa. The action is in the 1610s -- though, as you'll see below, Inderal treatment, not the 1610s that we're familiar with -- but for Bradford's purposes, the culture is timeless. Inderal For Sale, Most of the anachronisms are minor, but the sheer quantity is, after a while, exhausting. From food (( Sushi and Tempura unlikely at formal banquet, p, Inderal no rx. 38. Sashimi unlikely as student food, Buy Inderal no prescription, p. 87. )) to women's roles (( A daimyo daughter invited to a tea ceremony with her father, p, Inderal For Sale. 43. The budding romantic triangle between her, Inderal pictures, Jack and Masamoto's daughter. The fact that the daimyo's daughter and Masamoto's daughter -- among others -- are coequal students at Masamoto's school. About Inderal, )) to culture, (( Hard to know for sure, but seems early for origami, especially as Zen metaphor, taking Inderal, and the crane isn't a symbol of peace yet. Inderal For Sale, (90-92, passim). I've never heard of hallucinogens used as meditative aids or tests of character in Japan. Order Inderal from mexican pharmacy, (358). And while elite samurai were probably mostly literate by this time, the attempt to bar Jack from participating in a critical rite of passage because he can't write his name in kanji is a maneuver straight out of the 20th century bureaucratic playbook. (45), herbal Inderal. )) Bradford routinely sacrifices historical reality to creating a familiar cultural milieu for his readers, Inderal For Sale. (( and their teachers and guardians who want the books 'educational' )) Bradford also has his foreign characters using Western idioms -- "The blind leading the blind," (232) and "In the land of the blind, Comprar en línea Inderal, comprar Inderal baratos, the one-eyed man is king." (344) -- but not noting how strange they would sound to the Japanese characters. On the other hand, the Japanese characters talk in koans (or fortune cookies) a lot of the time as well: this culminates in a scene where Jack is preparing for a fight and everyone he talks to repeats their signature aphorism, and Jack then has to remember and use them all during the fight, Inderal dose, a triumph of authorial pedantry. (pp. Inderal over the counter, 375-389)

There are some truly weird alterations of history in this book, though, that go beyond behavioral quirks or contextual trappings. Inderal For Sale, While this is a Japan in which Oda Nobunaga ruled the late 1500s (( and led assaults on ninja territory, (254) )), it appears that in this version of history the Battle of Sekigahara hasn't happened, and the Tokugawa polity does not, in fact, exist. There is a Daimyo Takatomi Hideaki (Toyotomi Hideyoshi?) who rules the Kyoto region and is the daimyo whom Masamoto serves and who supports the school, purchase Inderal for sale, and a Daimyo Kamakura Katsura (( a fascinating mix of historically implausible names, continuing the tradition he began in the first book with Masamoto's sons Yamato and Tenno )) who rules Edo and is the patron of a rival school. Effects of Inderal, While Daimyo Kamakura is gathering forces and beginning a nationalistic anti-Christian movement (46, 131, 171, passim), order Inderal online c.o.d, Daimyo Takatomi is maneuvering against him (( with Masamoto's help as a diplomatic envoy (150), which clearly breaks any remaining literary connection between Masamoto and the nearly unemployable Musashi )) and is described as follows:

As you're well aware, Inderal from canadian pharmacy, the ruling lord here in Kyoto is Daimyo Takatomi. But Daimyo Takatomi is not just responsible for this province. He governs Japan as one of the appointed regents, and he's popular among the samurai lords, Inderal street price. He likes Christians and foreigners, Inderal For Sale. In fact, he likes them so much, Inderal dangers, I've heard that he's converting to Christianity himself. (p. 96)

It's not clear from this or from the context whether Takatomi is regent for the Emperor (who features prominently in the first book) or for the unnamed heir of the unnamed Hideyoshi. In fact, online buy Inderal without a prescription, it's not clear that Hideyoshi unified Japan in this timeline: it's entirely possible that Oda Nobunaga did it, since he gets credit for most of the interesting military adventures of the recent past, Where can i cheapest Inderal online, or that Japan never really went through a period of disunity and civil war. Inderal For Sale, Given the frequency with which characters either traveled to China (232, 349) or had contact with Chinese (346), there may not have been a wako pirate problem or invasion of Korea to interfere with the China trade. There are still areas considered "ninja territory" (283) which means that political control over localities is pretty weak. And the final challenges are referred to as "ancient samurai tradition" (352) which, in addition to conflating the school with the entire samurai class, Inderal without a prescription, seems to contradict the idea that this is Masamoto's school, a recent development. Buy cheap Inderal no rx, Clearly this is a very different timeline: there were in our history no daimyo outside of Kyushu who converted to Christianity -- though the teacher speaking here could just be very wrong -- and the anti-Christian movement and gradually escalating persecutions orchestrated by Daimyo Kamakura (( Using the term "Daimyo" as a cognate for "Lord" is awkward, at best, but I don't want anyone thinking that the Kamakura bakufu was somehow involved in this. It's not that far gone )) bear no resemblance to the nonchalance with which most daimyo greeted Christianity and foreign contact, Inderal wiki. Christianity was oppressed in Japan, but it was on orders from Hideyoshi and the Tokugawa Shoguns, and it was based on the dual loyalty problem, not on any theological or cultural revulsion against the religion, Inderal For Sale. Granted, theology was cited in the Expulsion edicts, Buy Inderal online no prescription, but I don't know any credible historian who considers that more than a bit of rhetorical cover for the geopolitical considerations regarding contact with European Catholic empires.

Even in the discussions of combat, which is supposed to be Bradford's forte, there's an immense amount of sloppy work in this book, Inderal photos. There's the clichéd scene where a brash young bravo duels an older, calmer warrior, Is Inderal safe, and gets efficiently dispatched. There's the Hong Kong Cinema inspired move by Masamoto Akiko, turning her caught leg into a base for a cartwheel kick, then riding the momentum to land on the neighboring roof, Inderal reviews. Inderal For Sale, There's constant references to "the fighting stance," (e.g. 233) as though there were only one. There's the preternaturally perceptive blind staff master who trains Jack, Inderal maximum dosage, et al., in blindfolded balance-beam combat and runs off the green-eyed ninja master almost single-handedly. Sensei Kano (( Yes, Bradford uses "Sensei" as an honorific prefix )) at least has one of the best lines in the book, buy generic Inderal, when the ninja tries to exploit his blindness with scattered spikes: "Tetsu-bishi, how uninspired." (343, Low dose Inderal, then he pole vaults over them!) In the running for most bizarre detail is that one of the girls at the rival school has "blackened teeth and fingernails that had been sharpened into claws." (169) (( The blackened teeth aren't really bizarre, except that she's the only female Jack encounters in either book who does this, and it's entirely inappropriate for an unmarried teenager. ))

Then there are the moments where the characters, cheap Inderal no rx, in order to move the plot along, must be a little dim. One of the teachers claims that "Iron is full of impurities that weaken it." (85) One of Jack's schoolmates is confused when ninja show up in the snow wearing white because "ninja always wear black" (225) though in a society with a substantial ninja problem, the concept of camouflage would have to be pretty well known, Inderal For Sale. Inderal results, Jack is assured several times that the anti-foreign political winds won't affect him because he'll be a tough and dangerous samurai, ignoring the fact that skill in combat has very little to do with freedom from oppression for small, visible minorities. (e.g, Inderal samples. 177) Jack publicly accuses a schoolmate and rival of cheating in a competition, and none of the adults question his statements or investigate. (( This happens all the time in the Harry Potter books: when it's necessary for the plot, the adults are completely oblivious to things like Quidditch equipment behaving radically differently than normal. The other laughably obvious Harry Potter borrowing in this book is a Patronus Inderal For Sale, moment. (363) )) Jack breaks (briefly) under torture (337), which is quite out of character, and fails to recognize the difference between xenophobic prejudice and distrust of an individual who routinely cheats. (326)

There were a few unexpectedly nice touches. The gold-leafed tea room (79) represents an authentic strain in Tea in the 1500s and early 1600s, and suggests that Takatomi is supposed to be an alternate Hideyoshi, but with a very different character. Bradford also correctly notes that tea was not yet an English drink. (82) Though I can't say I care for it as a plot device, there was a tradition among medieval warriors of premonitory dreams, Inderal For Sale. (e.g. 120) And the Zen parable that teaches that enlightenment gets further away the harder you try is nicely deployed by one of the teachers. (256).

At this point, I have to read the third book, just to see how the alternate timeline comes out, or if Bradford will clarify the bizarre historical process that brought us to this point. As far as these two books go, though, no disclaimer (( "Young Samurai: the Way of the Sword is a work of fiction, and while based on real historical figures, events and locations, the book does not profess to be accurate in this regard. Young Samurai is more an echo of the times than a reenactment of history." )) can possibly cover for the history, culture and writing which are on display here.

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