Japanese Historical Process in Anglophone Cinema History is a rich vein of stories and settings, and popular historical movies can have immense effects on the historical understanding of general publics. This is especially true in Japanese history in English-speaking societies, where knowledge is often limited to one-sided understandings of unique episodes and orientalist mythologies of unchanging culture. This paper will examine a number of English-language movies, recent and older, not to catalog historical errors, but to understand how historical memory and Japanese historical processes are understood and portrayed. Finally, this paper will consider how that might affect the work of Japan specialists addressing these audiences.I have a preliminary list of movies to address, most of which I've seen. I'd be interested to know if anyone out there has ideas about other films to consider?
Clomid For Sale, NYT reporter Nick Kristof brought in a guest blogger, Han-Yi Shaw of Taiwan, to examine some new mid-Meiji documentation about Japan's relationship with the contested Senkaku/Daiyou islands. The core of Shaw's findings is
the Meiji government acknowledged Chinese ownership of the islands back in 1885.
After several abortive attempts to survey the islands, Clomid wiki, Clomid steet value, the Japanese government declared them incorporated Japanese territory during the Sino-Japanese war, despite recognizing that it should have been negotiated with China, Clomid trusted pharmacy reviews. Clomid mg, As territory seized in 1895, it should have been reverted to China in 1945, Clomid from mexico, Clomid treatment, but for a variety of reasons, including an administrative shift of the islands from Taiwan to Okinawa prefecture, purchase Clomid online, Buy cheap Clomid, it remained outside of negotiations until a few years later.
It's a reasonably persuasive presentation, is Clomid safe, Clomid coupon, historically, though I don't think that these details are going to shift Japanese nationalists, Clomid photos, Buy Clomid without prescription, even mild or moderate ones, to support politicians who would abandon Japan's claim to these useless rocks which sit in such valuable territory, Clomid images. Comprar en línea Clomid, comprar Clomid baratos, And as long as there's no particular cost to maintaining the claim -- Chinese hostility to Japan is not predicated on this issue sufficiently that abandoning the claim would eliminate anti-Japanese sentiment as a nationalist motivational tool of the mainland regime -- it seems unlikely that anything will change, except a few American lectures, where can i order Clomid without prescription. Australia, uk, us, usa,. Clomid price. Comprar en línea Clomid, comprar Clomid baratos. Clomid cost. Where can i cheapest Clomid online. Purchase Clomid. Is Clomid safe. Clomid duration. Cheap Clomid no rx. Where can i buy Clomid online. Herbal Clomid. Clomid blogs. Clomid samples. What is Clomid. Clomid natural. Where can i buy cheapest Clomid online. Purchase Clomid for sale. Clomid pharmacy. Clomid price. Purchase Clomid online. My Clomid experience. Where can i order Clomid without prescription. Clomid wiki. Clomid pics. Clomid canada, mexico, india.
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Via Aaron Bady Flagyl For Sale, , I saw a wonderful article by Imke Sturm-Martin about the challenges of integrating migration history into the mainstream of European historical consciousness. Flagyl cost, (( Sturm-Martin, Imke, discount Flagyl. Flagyl forum, Translation by Samuel Willcocks. "Migration: Europe's absent history, Flagyl without a prescription, Where to buy Flagyl, " Eurozine 30 April 2012. http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2012-04-30-sturmmartin-en.html )) Europe is not the only place where migration history has complicated traditional narratives, purchase Flagyl online, Flagyl from canadian pharmacy, and where migration history has contemporary political implications, but it is a bit ahead of the curve, buy no prescription Flagyl online, Flagyl pictures, thanks to the usual patterns of economic and social change, compounded regional integration, Flagyl interactions. I don't have time to give this the full treatment it deserves, but Sturm-Martin's most interesting point is that the full integration of history into master national narratives is very much hindered by those national narratives, Flagyl For Sale. Ordering Flagyl online,
Which migration should become part of a European narrative. The question is not an easy one – the only uncontroversial instances are migrations that lie so far back in time that all can agree on their consequences for European history, Flagyl trusted pharmacy reviews. Where can i buy cheapest Flagyl online, It is much harder to agree about migration in recent history and the present, and even individual national historiographies have trouble with such cases, Flagyl samples. Flagyl used for, Whenever and wherever the consequences of migration are felt in the present, questions arise of minority rights, Flagyl alternatives, Flagyl online cod, group rights, inequality and discrimination, Flagyl dangers, Flagyl from mexico, and demand that any "official" history be politically correct. Flagyl For Sale, Like any other public presentation of history, the House of European History in Brussels, due to open in 2014, will be unable to avoid taking a political stance on such questions. .., order Flagyl no prescription. Flagyl description, Visitors are to be told about the great migrations of antiquity, about migration from the countryside to the cities during the industrial revolution, buy Flagyl without a prescription, Where can i cheapest Flagyl online, and about the refugees and displaced or expelled persons who migrated after both World Wars. This list does not mention the "international" aspects of seasonal migration in Early Modern Europe, Flagyl gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Buy Flagyl online cod, a well-researched topic by now; nor does it mention the vast scale of emigration to the Americas from various European countries, or the substantial migration from outside Europe at the end of the colonial era, Flagyl results. Buy Flagyl no prescription, Even the workforce recruitment campaigns in the southern countries during Europe's boom years in the 1950s and 1960s is omitted. Such large-scale historical processes have fallen victim to the necessary selection process, but they might perhaps be part of the section "Questions for Europe's Future", which aims to throw up questions for visitors to ponder, Flagyl For Sale. One of these is, where can i find Flagyl online, Is Flagyl safe, "How can the EU react to the demographic change affecting all its member states. Is encouraging immigration an effective response?"
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Buy Ampicillin Without Prescription, Not much of a post, given the nature of my frenetic academic life these days, but Alex Wellerstein's post at Nuclear Secrecy raises fascinating question about the WWII-ending atomic bombings: what if the Japanese hadn't surrendered after Nagasaki.
According to the documentation he offers, buy Ampicillin from mexico, Order Ampicillin from United States pharmacy, a third bomb would have been ready to go in a few weeks, with the likely prospect of about three more per month after that for the remainder of 1945, kjøpe Ampicillin på nett, köpa Ampicillin online. Ampicillin steet value, Given how narrowly the decision to surrender won the day after Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Soviet entry into the war, Ampicillin treatment, Ampicillin from canada, and how elements of the military tried to forestall the surrender after the decision, it's a much more plausible (and frightening) discussion than the "what if we hadn't dropped the bomb" question, order Ampicillin online overnight delivery no prescription. Buy cheap Ampicillin no rx, (Thanks to Brett Holman for the tip. Brett's liveblogging WWII, Ampicillin for sale, Ampicillin schedule, mostly the Blitz, but some interesting Japan material popped up today), online buying Ampicillin hcl. Ampicillin maximum dosage. Online buy Ampicillin without a prescription. Ampicillin australia, uk, us, usa. Ampicillin images. Buy Ampicillin from canada. About Ampicillin. Ampicillin natural. Cheap Ampicillin no rx. Canada, mexico, india. Ampicillin class. Buy Ampicillin online no prescription. Ampicillin long term. Ampicillin pharmacy. Ampicillin dose. Buy generic Ampicillin. My Ampicillin experience. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Ampicillin duration. Buying Ampicillin online over the counter. Ampicillin over the counter. Ampicillin steet value. Ampicillin long term. Taking Ampicillin. Buy generic Ampicillin. After Ampicillin. Ampicillin pics. Where can i find Ampicillin online. Online buying Ampicillin hcl. Online buy Ampicillin without a prescription.
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First, the two biggest events of the annual calendar happen in January: The American Historical Association Meeting and the Cliopatria Awards. Both, buy cheap Lasix no rx, fortunately, have nice, Lasix wiki, tidy round-up posts I can link to. The Cliopatria awards for 2011 included
- Best Individual Blog: The Chirurgeon's Apprentice
- Best Group Blog: Wonders and Marvels
- Best New Blog: Demography and the Imperial Public Sphere Before Victoria
- Best Post: Karen Abbott's "If There's a Man Among Ye: The Tale of Pirate Queens Anne Bonny and Mary Read," Past Imperfect, 9 August 2011
- Best Series of Posts: Erik Loomis, Lasix coupon, "This Day in Labor History," Lawyers, Where can i cheapest Lasix online, Guns & Money.
- Best Writer: Corey Robin
- Best Twitter Feed: @KatrinaGulliver. #Twitterstorian Doyenne
- Best Podcast Episode: Marshall Poe's New Books In History episode from 14 January 2011: "Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People, W.W, Lasix For Sale. Norton & Company, 2010."
There was a LOT of blogging and tweeting at this year's AHA, much of it centered on the groundbreaking #THATCamp -- the first held in conjunction with a national organizational conference -- which brought a lot of heavyweight and beginning digital history folks together, buying Lasix online over the counter. There were even some interesting historical papers delivered, I'm told. Buy Lasix without prescription, Check out the collection: it covers just about everything I read on the conference, and then some. Next Year In New Orleans.
Lasix For Sale, A public service announcement: Sharon Howard has updated the Early Modern Commons blog aggregator, http://commons.earlymodernweb.org/, and the general history aggregator, http://thebroadside.org/. If you're not getting enough history in your media diet, purchase Lasix online, this is the one-stop shop. OK, Lasix online cod, two stop shop.
For the remainder of the carnival, I'm mostly going to be posting titles and what I hope are intriguing quotations: nothing fancy, but there's some really neat stuff here.
Historiography and Method
This evening I’d like to lead us on a quick browse in the library, curious about when it was that we first thought we knew everything there was to know about the Pilgrims already.
The Award-Winning Wonders and Marvels: Impotence in the Archives: or, Lasix results, a Research Trip Failed
much of my work in archives is tied to physical memory. Looking back at my notes over the years, I can remember the way in which documents looked or smelled at the time, Lasix For Sale. More importantly, I can remember where to find specific points in my notes.
Peter Rowlett: Apparently Gauss got in this bar fight with Hilbert...
Principle A tells me nothing should be produced with errors, but Principle B suggests work with minor errors should be taken in good faith, order Lasix online c.o.d. Both cannot hold.
Also, Einstein was a straight-A math student.
Jane Stevenson, Low dose Lasix, Texts and Textiles: Self-Presentation among the Elite in Renaissance England is Not so much a blog post, as a full-fledged, open access journal article. How do we feel about that, Lasix blogs. I feel pretty damned good: open access journals, like blogs, Purchase Lasix for sale, make it easier to see what historians do and engage their work. Lasix For Sale, Not sure we'll make it a regular feature: host's option.
Textiles and fashion were central to court life, and even, in themselves, Lasix cost, a means of communication. They attracted what seems to us a completely disproportionate amount of available resources, Lasix without a prescription, infinitely more than the paintings and other more permanent artefacts which are now more familiar to us.
Award Winning Demography and the Imperial Public Sphere Before Victoria: Scottish Solidarity and the Historiography of the Tobacco Trade
Will Thomas at Ether Wave Propaganda has been doing a fascinating series on Tactile History, about recreating experiments and methods to study them directly.
Gathering data is not a neutral act, it will alter the power balance, Lasix price, coupon, usually in favor of the people collecting the information.
Pedagogy And Public History
Open Plaques blog: Finding Flann O'Brien: plaques, places, Lasix used for, tongues and names
Next in our investigation of the plaques we come to the matter of his three names (four if you include the Irish spelling of his first), possibly confusing for the Open Plaques naming system (we currently list two of them). Brian O’Nolan, the civil servant, Lasix no prescription. Flann O’Brien, the pseudonym of the literary author, Lasix For Sale. And Myles na cGopaleen – his pen-name as the famous satirical ‘Cruiskeen Lawn’ columnist for The Irish Times newspaper, a column that brought him more notoriety in his lifetime than his books and made him unpopular with the grandees of the Irish state.
Joseph Adelman: Behind every good historian is someone who read an awful early draft and patiently explained what he/she was actually saying. Is Lasix addictive,
In the end, I am glad I conducted the experiment and have already adopted small elements of it into a couple of my courses this semester (namely the modular topic format and a greater focus on non-lecture activities in class to stimulate playful historical thinking). No prescription Lasix online, However, in its current form, the class needs more polish to buff out the dents, smudges, buy no prescription Lasix online, and scratches.
History departments die by efficiency because sitting around contemplating the answers to ageless questions doesn’t really do all that much for the gross national product. Lasix For Sale, Therefore, I think we in history and many closely-related fields will disappear in the coming wave of technology-induced efficiency unless we offer a different set of values through which to justify our existence. Order Lasix from mexican pharmacy, I happen to be rather fond of joy. Sitting around contemplating the answers to ageless questions may not be efficient, but it is lots of fun.
Brandon Watson, "Correction in the Classroom"
there is a form of critical thinking most students engage in a lot....the assessment of whether a professor is worth learning from at all.
In Pursuit of History: The Complaint of Christmas: A Serialised Christmas Tale
a story written in 1631 that .., Lasix samples. recounts the adventures of Christmas, who visits earth on the 25th December as an old man (a precursor to Father Christmas no doubt) along with his companions, Lasix canada, mexico, india, the 12 days of Christmas. His adventures take him around Europe and then to England where he discovers what has become of Christmas charity and hospitality.
Mercurius Politicus, Seventeenth Century Crowd Funding
Taylor segmented his subscribers into seven categories:
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Although comparisons to the Garden of Eden were frequent, these images also reveal a profound anxiety about the abundance of nature in the Neotropics.
Interview with author Sarah Wise about her book on death and the illicit cadaver trade in early 19th century London
But Londoners loved these attractive, exotic-looking little Italian waifs, and would also defend other types of beggars if anyone appeared to be hassling them. Ordinary city-dwellers seemed to me, Lasix street price, in reading the primary source material, to be a lot less withdrawn and in their own little world than we city-dwellers are today, Kjøpe Lasix på nett, köpa Lasix online, and seemed to show more class, or social, solidarity.
Streets of Washington: The Prolific Mrs. E.D.E.N, Lasix forum. Southworth and her Georgetown Cottage
Supposedly it was on his deathbed that Captain Nevitte persuaded a local priest to rechristen little Emma with two additional names so that here initials would spell out E.D.E.N., a melodramatic gesture particularly well-suited to the novelist-to-be.
Modern air travel’s safety and accessibility are greatly indebted to aviation’s long history of experiments, Lasix natural, failures, accidents and deaths.
Romeo Vitelli: The Benjamin Rush Prescription (Part 1)
not only did Lewis and Clark set out on their expedition armed with microscopes, compasses, three mercury thermometers, Lasix dangers, and other scientific instruments, they also carried more than six hundred mercury laxatives, Where can i order Lasix without prescription, each four times the size of an aspirin
Natalie Bennett: Can we choose to descend to a less intensive, simpler level. Have we done it before? is reviewing Joseph A Tainter’s The Collapse of Complex Societies (1988)
Alan Flower, Napoleon's Secret Navy
In October 1805, Lasix overnight, within days of the disaster at Trafalgar, the French minister of Marine and Colonies, Buy cheap Lasix, Vice Admiral Denis Decres, started to lay the groundwork for the reconstruction of the French fleet.
Current Events and Echoes
What would New Years be without some Chinese astrological etymology and cultural appropriation. Also, in Asian connections, I had a short piece on Japanese food policy history in light of the Fukushima disaster, Lasix For Sale.
A remarkable story of renegade historical preservationists:
UX’s most sensational caper (to be revealed so far, at least) was completed in 2006, about Lasix. A cadre spent months infiltrating the Pantheon, the grand structure in Paris that houses the remains of France’s most cherished citizens. Lasix australia, uk, us, usa, Eight restorers built their own secret workshop in a storeroom, which they wired for electricity and Internet access and outfitted with armchairs, tools, a fridge, rx free Lasix, and a hot plate. During the course of a year, they painstakingly restored the Pantheon’s 19th- century clock, which had not chimed since the 1960s. Lasix For Sale, Those in the neighborhood must have been shocked to hear the clock sound for the first time in decades: the hour, the half hour, the quarter hour.
It’s already slightly creepy to challenge the first African American president to a debate modeled on debates over the legitimacy of slavery. It’s doubly disturbing if you look at the actual content and context of the original debates, which was circus like and full of racist demagoguery.
A woman in Ohio continues to claim that having a ‘Whites Only’ sign hung at the public pool is not racist. ... changing her argument to assert that the sign is an antique and therefore apart of her heritage.
That's Not History: Equality and Fairness in Persia v. American Exceptionalism
So, freedom of religion and culture, civil liberties, property rights, freedom of movement, and the abolition of slavery. Not too shabby on the equality front, Lasix For Sale. But wait. There's more!
USIH on Charles Murray, inter alia: Post Civil Rights Intellectual Ferment and Race
Racial politics were persistently perplexing, despite the successes of the civil rights movement, largely because, as President Lyndon Johnson proclaimed in a Howard University speech on June 4, 1965, “equality as a right and a theory” was not the same thing as “equality as a fact and as a result.”
The History Carnival is in good shape for upcoming hosts through June, but always looking for volunteers for later. Next month's edition will be hosted at The View East by blogger and Twitterstorian Kelly Hignett. I hope this lives up to the "bumper edition" billing.
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Buy Biaxin Without Prescription, In honor of the 70th anniversary of the Japanese attack on the US at Pearl Harbor, the Society for the History of American Foreign Relations has published a series of essays on the event and historical memory issues; HNN has reprinted it (with a useful index post). Buy Biaxin without a prescription, John Gripentrog's "The Road to War" is a solid discussion of the political and ideological differences which put the US and Japan on a collision course. HNN's supplemental piece, online buying Biaxin, Biaxin dosage, by Rupert Colley, tracks how the attack brought the US into the European conflict, Biaxin images. Biaxin for sale, And Emily Rosenberg discusses how iconic attacks like Pearl Harbor and 9/11 and their rhetorical and cultural resonances.
Those are fine, order Biaxin no prescription, Biaxin pharmacy, but the articles I find most interesting are the other two. Greg Robinson writes about the effect of the Pearl Harbor attack on Japanese Americans at that time and the way in which it becomes part of the rhetoric of race and bias in the decades to come, Buy Biaxin Without Prescription. (( The twitter chatter as the disaster this spring unfolded frequently, Biaxin dose, Doses Biaxin work, shockingly, referenced Pearl Harbor with a vicious karmic glee )) Finally, Biaxin alternatives, Comprar en línea Biaxin, comprar Biaxin baratos, Yujin Yaguchi describes an intercultural teachers' seminar which brought together Japanese and American teachers with time to explore their biases, perspectives, Biaxin mg, Biaxin reviews, and to encounter new ones. The historiographical issues aren't terribly new to academic historians, cheap Biaxin no rx, Biaxin recreational, but for teachers working in a national curriculum context, it was quite enlightening, purchase Biaxin. My Biaxin experience, Update: This article by Jonathan Parshall and J. Michael Wenger is the first interesting new scholarship I've seen on Pearl Harbor in years, Biaxin class. Order Biaxin online overnight delivery no prescription, Mostly it's about the development of the Japanese aircraft carrier group as an operational unit, an unforseen shift in naval tactics, low dose Biaxin. Generic Biaxin. About Biaxin. Biaxin pics. Biaxin maximum dosage. Order Biaxin from mexican pharmacy. Biaxin coupon. Purchase Biaxin online. Fast shipping Biaxin. Biaxin pharmacy. Biaxin blogs. Order Biaxin from United States pharmacy. No prescription Biaxin online. Biaxin overnight. Biaxin recreational. Cheap Biaxin. Ordering Biaxin online. Biaxin dosage. Biaxin dangers. Comprar en línea Biaxin, comprar Biaxin baratos. Online buying Biaxin hcl.
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The ninja question came up last week in my Samurai Buy Cephalexin Without Prescription, class -- we were talking about possible writing projects -- so I had to do my ninja spiel, which has become a bit of a set piece. The history of ninja in three stages: Sneaky samurai, online buy Cephalexin without a prescription, Cheap Cephalexin no rx, literary device, and school, Cephalexin gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. Cephalexin treatment, The first stage covers the history up through the Warring States, possibly including the early Tokugawa, my Cephalexin experience, Canada, mexico, india, and it's the age when, as Karl Friday put it, where to buy Cephalexin, Cephalexin online cod, "“ninja” denotes a function, not a special kind of warrior–ninja WERE samurai .., Cephalexin interactions. Cephalexin cost, performing “ninja” work." Turnbull describes this period in some detail, and it's fairly clear from his collected episodes that there may have been some warriors who were especially sneaky, Cephalexin over the counter, Cephalexin alternatives, but not a continual tradition. There are a variety of figures that are credited as "the first ninja": I'm partial to the yamabushi theory, Cephalexin reviews, Real brand Cephalexin online, just because it does highlight the warrior-priest tradition, and because it attributes to the ninja magical powers and ethical principles which are clearly absurd, rx free Cephalexin. Ignoring, though, the origins snipe-hunt, there clearly was a place for stealth, surprise and spycraft in the free-for-all conflicts of Japan's warrior ages, when samurai honor was based more on "victory or death" than battlefield procedure, Buy Cephalexin Without Prescription. Buy generic Cephalexin, (( see Conlan, State of War, buy Cephalexin without prescription, Buy cheap Cephalexin, which we'll be reading in a few weeks. )) So some warriors did that, order Cephalexin online c.o.d. Buy Cephalexin without a prescription,
As the Hideyoshi-Tokugawa peace takes hold, and Samurai become a more cohesive class with an interest in Confucian ethics, Cephalexin without prescription, Cephalexin australia, uk, us, usa, a more rule-oriented value system, (( see Ikegami, where can i order Cephalexin without prescription, Cephalexin without a prescription, The Taming of the Samurai, which we're reading now )) they become ashamed of the sneaky successes of their predecessors, Cephalexin use, Taking Cephalexin, and also start to become more specialized and formalized with regard to combat styles. Most schools of martial arts have both public and secret teachings, effects of Cephalexin, Where can i buy cheapest Cephalexin online, so the idea of a separate class of stealth specialists with secret traditions is entirely consistent with the Tokugawa-era samurai tradition. Buy Cephalexin Without Prescription, This is where the second stage begins: the cultural ninja.
Ninja were a lively part of the Tokugawa entertainment industrial complex: plays, purchase Cephalexin, Order Cephalexin no prescription, fun houses, books, after Cephalexin, Cephalexin canada, mexico, india, and visual art all explored the idea of the secret warrior, turning him in to a mighty, Cephalexin pictures, Cephalexin schedule, nearly mystical, foe, buy Cephalexin online cod, Cephalexin dose, a haunting presence which could only be beaten through preparedness and righteousness by the mightiest samurai. (( Friday and Turnbull both address this )) Ninja become Robin Hood/Jesse James type outlaws, Cephalexin images, Cephalexin no prescription, a friend to the common man -- sometimes said to be of peasant origin themselves -- and a blight on the establishment. By being a kind of anti-hero, Cephalexin class, Where can i cheapest Cephalexin online, occupying a rhetorical tactical space that the samurai could not, the ninja helped to legitimate the samurai as ethical warriors, as well as providing a kind of outlet for anti-samurai frustration and fantasy. This version of the ninja enters the western literary tradition through, among others, Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. (( There's a whole history yet to be written on the relationship between US military presences in East Asia, kung fu movies and the rise of Japanese martial arts in the US, Buy Cephalexin Without Prescription. But nobody's written it yet. )) This stage is still very much in existence, of course, as the literary/cinematic tradition persists, even adding new themes like environmental consciousness.
The third stage overlaps the second -- a common problem for historians attempting stage theories; perhaps 'state' or 'thread' would be a better unit -- from the early modern to the modern. At some point in the Tokugawa or Meiji eras, depending on the form and who you believe, styles of martial arts became formalized more or less at the same time that they become largely irrelevant. Buy Cephalexin Without Prescription, As noted above, most have some form of "secret teaching" for advanced adepts, and a "hidden history" as well tracing back to a noteworthy ancestor-teacher, and most of them also have well-established rivalries with related schools. In that regard, Ninja as a modern "warrior way" isn't distinguishable from other Japanese or Chinese martial practices. In the modern age, when combat techniques are as much a matter of market forces and fashions as military necessities, the secret traditions have largely become routinized; the mythology of the ninja requires an overlay of mystery, which is maintained both by the continuing use of ninja legends as entertainment (( From children's literature to Mito Komon.... )) and a passionate defense of the narrative of ninja as a secret, continuing tradition which has emerged into the light with modernity.
These three phases of the ninja tradition help separate out the fact from the fiction, clarify how and why ninja might be a substantial historical topic, and why the entertainment tradition has strayed so far from anything resembling reality.
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Augmentin For Sale, The Asia/Pacific Journal, aka Japan Focus, has a fascinating interview with Heinrich Reinfried, Senior Lecturer in East Asian Studies at the University St. Gallen, Augmentin for sale, Switzerland, conducted by a Swiss weekly. "Sushi and Samurai: Western Stereotypes and the (Mis)Understanding of Post-Tsunami Japan" begins and ends with a credible historical and thematic deconstruction of some of the less helpful stereotypes of Japan: Japan as samurai state, Augmentin blogs, kamikaze, Effects of Augmentin, zen masters. I particularly liked the short bit on Herrigel
Nazi Germany made use of the samurai ideal of one who obeys orders unconditionally, who sacrifices himself on orders from above, Augmentin cost, who although not a Christian has a noble soul. Augmentin steet value, This is the ideological basis of Zen in the Art of Archery by the Nazi Eugen Herrigel, a book which has exerted a powerful influence over the years. Some Swiss still today regard this book as the open sesame to Japan, Augmentin For Sale. It is amusing to hear of Europeans with an anti-authoritarian upbringing who go to Japan to let a Zen master hit them should they doze off during meditation.
He mentions early 20th century ideas about national character, after Augmentin, and Saidian othering
we use Japan as a negative role model incorporating the opposite of the positive qualities we attribute to ourselves.
And he talks about the Cold War re-exoticisation of Japan as a land of Geisha and gardens, Augmentin maximum dosage, class-less capitalism. I'm not sure Henry Luce is as much to blame as Reinfried, nor am I terribly convinced by his analysis of Japan's response/role in the process:
Reinfried: Japanese are quick to realize what others see in them, Augmentin duration. They are eager to incorporate foreign images into their self-image, About Augmentin, above all, of course, those which are self-aggrandizing, Augmentin class. This is what happened during the Cold War when Japanese adapted and subsequently internalized the positive image that the Western world had propagated in order to mark Japan off from communist China. Augmentin For Sale, This self-perception enabled the country to reach the goal it had envisaged since the Meiji-Period, namely to “catch up to and go beyond“ the West. Augmentin australia, uk, us, usa, It made Japan unique but also nurtured its own brand of nationalism.
DM: There are those who maintain that Japanese just love playing the exotic role assigned to them by foreigners.
Reinfried: To some extent every country puts on a show for others, Augmentin reviews. That is part of the success story of many nations. We Swiss, too, like to pretend that we are cowherds addicted to cheese, Augmentin For Sale. Augmentin price, coupon, It is only when disaster occurs that we take note of the fact that we all live in one and the same world. Exceptionalist claims regarding culture then immediately fade into irrelevance.
There's an argument to be made there, I suppose, Augmentin dose, but there's too much going on here which glosses over complications: tourism, Real brand Augmentin online, nationalism, the extent to which Japan's self-image created or was created by foreign discourses, and the China-Japan cultural tension which was over a half-century old before the Cold War started, Augmentin from canadian pharmacy.
This is typical, Order Augmentin online overnight delivery no prescription, though, of the middle section of the interview, in which Reinfried engages in substantial myth-making and othering of his own, Augmentin forum. Aside from a well-earned swipe at foreign journalists shallow reportage, Augmentin description, there's a whole litany of chestnuts, conventional images of Japan, highly questionable generalizations presented as nearly-universal truths about all Japanese, buy generic Augmentin, without a hint of the critical perspective of the rest of the article. Augmentin For Sale, Most of them are about Japan as a collective, connected society. Generic Augmentin, For example:
- "In Japan, even a disaster is handled in an organized manner. Japan is generally characterized by a very high degree of organization, buy Augmentin from mexico. This also applies to disaster management. Purchase Augmentin for sale, Japanese rely heavily on organization, simply because they do not see any real alternative to getting themselves organized."
- "People in the Western world basically believe in their capability to live on their own, whereas Japanese tend to see themselves as part of a system, ordering Augmentin online. They do not see themselves as being capable of existing without an external system such as the state."
- "In Japan, man and nature are not in contradiction, since in their view man was not blessed by God with a mind and then placed in Nature, Augmentin For Sale. In Japan, Australia, uk, us, usa, man and what we call Nature together form a unity. This realm can be either orderly or chaotic, bestowing blessings at times, herbal Augmentin, at other times demonstrating that its might cannot be controlled, Augmentin schedule, such as when it produces huge tsunami or rattles the earth. At the same time, the conviction that man can keep the dangers of Nature at bay with the help of technology is being nurtured, order Augmentin from United States pharmacy. Scientists refer to a disaster as an “occurrence.“ A disaster is the result of the fact that man settled in places he is not intended to settle."
- "Religious beliefs are a strictly private concern. Augmentin For Sale, There is, however, a strong link with one’s ancestors, to whom Japanese feel very close. Order Augmentin from mexican pharmacy, Religious feelings do exist in the form of gratefulness towards them as well as towards fellow human beings in general. The notion is widely accepted that in a society based on division of labor, one’s existence depends precariously on one’s fellow citizens doing their jobs properly, get Augmentin. This, Augmentin brand name, in essence, is the least common denominator in Japanese religion."
- "In Japan there is the view that man is neither good nor bad, but malleable: Just as water assumes the form of the vessel it is contained in, Augmentin from canada, man must always be embedded in a vessel, Get Augmentin, be it family, community or company."
- "In Japan, public discourse constitutes mainly an exchange of factual information, Augmentin pics, not of worldviews or personal convictions. Augmentin no prescription, ... Japanese public debates on TV generally run in orderly fashion, Augmentin For Sale. In Japan, differences of opinion are attributed to differences in the level of information and not to ideological differences, Augmentin samples. We have behind us a long tradition of disputes between believers and non-believers. Purchase Augmentin for sale, In Japan, there are only those who know and those who do not. In case of disagreement, Augmentin pictures, people do not raise their voices to outshout each other but go home to recheck the vital facts. Augmentin For Sale, Saying this, I don’t in any way want to suggest that Japanese are unable to raise their voices in a quarrel if they feel the need."
- "Japanese are not successful because they are ready to die for their company. Buy generic Augmentin, Japanese are successful because they think in terms of systems. The individual is of little importance in this dimension of strategic thinking, so these handbooks are misleading, ordering Augmentin online. In Japan, everything is conceived as a system. Individuals and their achievements are of secondary importance."
I could go on. The idea of Japan as a systematic, organized society has deep roots, and there are ways in which these statements could be construed as true, with caveats, limitations, and an awareness of the way in which these ideas serve the needs of the state and a kind of social order, Augmentin For Sale. What's most odd, I suppose, is the degree to which Reinfried fails to recognize that these are cultural tropes of great power as well as fairly commonplace images of Japan, both within and abroad. There's a saying I heard once, and can't find a source for, that man for man, the Chinese can beat the Japanese, but that four Japanese can beat four Chinese because they work together. (( I'm pretty sure I heard it about economic productivity regarding Japan and the US, too. If anyone can find sources, I'd be interested to see them. )) There have been movies (( Gung Ho, among others )) and books galore on these themes, not to mention a whole cottage industry of debunking scholarship on most of them.
This ended up being a very frustrating article to read, because it started out so well.....
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What makes Louise Young's Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, such a fascinating, troubling work is that she details the way in which the Manchurian experience, and the strategic vulnerability of the Manchurian adventure, rebound into the politics and culture of Japan itself. Where can i order Wellbutrin SR without prescription, It reverses, in a way, Wellbutrin SR over the counter, Real brand Wellbutrin SR online, the traditional narratives of colonialism which see influence flowing from the metropole to the periphery rather than the other way around. And as consciousness of Manchuria became increasingly central to Japanese political and cultural identity, Wellbutrin SR duration, Wellbutrin SR steet value, Japanese politics became increasingly radical: nationalist, racialist, where can i buy Wellbutrin SR online, Wellbutrin SR alternatives, expansionist, militarist; in a word, cheap Wellbutrin SR, Buy Wellbutrin SR online no prescription, imperialist. Not that Japan wasn't an empire before that -- Taiwan, Wellbutrin SR cost, Cheap Wellbutrin SR no rx, Korea, Liaodong, after Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin SR description, and a large swath of the South Pacific attest to Japan's willingness to take control of other peoples -- or that the cultural elements weren't in place. But under the influence of the ongoing crisis in Manchuria, purchase Wellbutrin SR online no prescription, Wellbutrin SR interactions, a crisis experienced by many who travelled there, worked there, online buying Wellbutrin SR hcl, Wellbutrin SR class, and seen and heard through music, movies and other outlets, what is Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin SR for sale, liberal alternatives like internationalism became unpalatable, even unacceptable, Wellbutrin SR no rx. If you're tied to the usual nation-bound histories of culture and politics, and the one-way influence of the standard metropole-periphery model, this is a paradigm-shifting piece of scholarship, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription. Wellbutrin SR maximum dosage, As Albert Szent-Gyorgyi said, "Research is to see what everybody else has seen, buy Wellbutrin SR from canada, Wellbutrin SR reviews, and to think what nobody else has thought."
I thought of Young's work when I read this NYT profile of David Yerushalmi, one of the architects and driving forces behind the anti-Shariah movement in the United States, Wellbutrin SR brand name. Wellbutrin SR dose, Yerushalmi's radically political and hostile view of Islam have become common-place opinions in certain segments of the US political spectrum -- primarily Republican, Tea Party, Wellbutrin SR blogs, Comprar en línea Wellbutrin SR, comprar Wellbutrin SR baratos, Buchananite Isolationist, Dominionist and similar groups -- and have been put into legislative form in Oklahoma, Wellbutrin SR results, Wellbutrin SR recreational, as well as as other states. Especially in the context of US involvement in the Middle East, online Wellbutrin SR without a prescription, Generic Wellbutrin SR, the specific focus of the xenophobia against the very kinds of people who are the target of US policy, the anxiety about subversion by global networks of muslims based on the statements and actions of a radicalized few, effects of Wellbutrin SR, Order Wellbutrin SR no prescription, really does remind me of the Japanese turn in the 1920s and 1930s against communism, socialism and anarchism, my Wellbutrin SR experience, Wellbutrin SR images, against the Korean and Chinese activists, and their Japanese allies, Wellbutrin SR canada, mexico, india, Wellbutrin SR from mexico, who were the strongest proponents of those theories.
What really fascinated me about the profile, Wellbutrin SR coupon, Online buying Wellbutrin SR, though, was Yerushalmi's background, online buy Wellbutrin SR without a prescription. Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription, Or rather, a combination of his background and the way in which the article glided over the interesting bits.
His interest in Islamic law began with the Sept. 11 attacks, he said, when he was living in Ma’ale Adumim, a large Jewish settlement in the Israeli-occupied West Bank.
At the time, Mr. Yerushalmi, a native of South Florida, divided his energies between a commercial litigation practice in the United States and a conservative research institute based in Jerusalem, where he worked to promote free-market reform in Israel.
After moving to Brooklyn the following year, Mr. Yerushalmi said he began studying Arabic and Shariah under two Islamic scholars, whom he declined to name.
He is an American Hasidic Jew -- literally the third thing we learn about him after his name and age -- and lawyer, hostile to the secular socialist roots of Israel (( Note that the "conservative research institute" isn't named, begging the question of whose definition of "conservative" the reporter is using in this description. )) who suddenly became troubled by the nature of Islam after the 9/11 attacks, Buy Wellbutrin SR Without Prescription.
Maybe. But I don't think that it's coincidental that Yerushalmi was an American living in Israel -- a state often described as an agent of American power in the Middle East (( though I think "stalking horse" or "scapegoat" might be more precise )) and in particular living in an areas which is easily (and I think fairly) described as an Israeli colonial territory. I think it's more likely that the experience of living in occupied territory radicalized him, hardened his views on Islam. He was engaged in a struggle at the frontier of civilization, in his own mind, when members of a group he already percieved as the enemy struck at his homeland, to which he returned to share his hard-won perspective on the issues. And because of the shock of that attack, compounded by the ongoing challenge of war overseas and economic troubles, he found people receptive to his message of a subversive force at work in the world, an existential conflict.
Being an empire means having peripheries, and those peripheries are going to have troubles, in no small part because of their relationship with the metropole. But mistaking the tensions of the periphery for an existential crisis is the kind of lack of perspective which signals weak leadership, a distorted public sphere, and a high probability of escalating sunken cost fallacies driving policy..
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Temovate Cream For Sale, Mary Pope Osborne's Magic Tree House series is intended to educate and entertain by taking its protagonists to different times and places, real and mythical. These Scholastic books are mainstays of schools, libraries, and primary curricula, and some of the books have companion "Research Guide" publications for kids who want to know more about the historical, real brand Temovate Cream online, cultural or scientific background. Some of these books are aimed at early readers: the first 28 in the series are short, with short, Temovate Cream from canada, simple sentences appropriate to 1st or 2nd graders; after that the series shifts into the slightly more fantastical "Merlin Mission" mode, longer stories with more complex writing suitable for 2nd or 3rd grade students; the research guides seem to be aimed at 2nd through 4th graders. (( Check the Scholastic web site for official suitability levels. Also if you have any doubt about the fact that these are aimed at an education audience.... )) In these stories, Jack and Annie are given a book which, combined with the magic of the tree house, takes them to a time and place where they can carry out a mission of some kind, while learning about the site of their adventure, Temovate Cream For Sale. The whole thing is supposed to be an encouragement to learning, comprar en línea Temovate Cream, comprar Temovate Cream baratos, so to speak, showing the value of book reading. Twice in the series, Temovate Cream images, Jack and Annie have visited Japanese history: in the earlier, shorter work, we get nature-loving ninja and threatening samurai; in the later adventure, we get the nature-loving poet Basho, a magical dragon, Temovate Cream online cod, and threatening samurai. (( I could put a spoiler alert here, but how many 2nd-4th graders are reading this blog, Temovate Cream pics, who haven't already moved beyond Jack and Annie adventures. Well, my son wants to read this post when I'm finished with it, but other than him. ))
Temovate Cream For Sale, The text that Jack and Annie work from -- more Jack than Annie: he's the cautious, bookish one, and she's the impulsive, intuitive one -- gives an explicit frame to the story, and the book is never wrong. Because of Annie's impulsiveness, Temovate Cream no rx, they never get to read through the book carefully, but look up facts as they become relevant: the facts are short, context-free chunks of information that usually explain what the characters are seeing, Buy Temovate Cream from canada, and remembering these bits often comes in handy at critical moments. In addition to the books they read, they often get guidance from people they meet: many of the adventures feature a "local informant" who helps them navigate local custom and landscape and often is critical to their larger mission; usually they are supposed to return to the Magic Tree House with a specific item or piece of information. (( Missions are part of larger projects: the series is built around four-book units which share a problem and theme. Jack and Annie accumulate skills and credentials over the series, Temovate Cream class. This makes up for the fact that the individual books are very short, and acculturates young readers to longer works, Temovate Cream For Sale. That's the general idea, anyway. )) As with the books that bring them to these times and places, Temovate Cream results, their local informants are never wrong, either, though sometimes they misjudge Jack or, more often, Annie, Temovate Cream use. (( I suspect that most of my readers at this point are either familiar with the series, or have stopped reading. But I want to establish the authority of the voices: readers of the series are acculturated, Temovate Cream for sale, if they read more than one or two, to accept the authority of the guiding book and teachers. ))
The first Japan adventure is Night of the Ninjas Temovate Cream For Sale, (( Book 5, published in 1995 by Random House, with illustrations by Sal Murdocca. )) in which Jack and Annie return to an unidentified moment in Japan's medieval period. Here's what their book has to say about it:
- "Very little is known about the shadowy warriors called ninjas. Historians believe that ninjas lived in Japan between the 14th and 17th centuries, order Temovate Cream from United States pharmacy. Both men and women were ninjas. Sometimes they fought to protect their families, Temovate Cream For Sale. Sometimes warlords hired them to be spies." (15-16)
- "Sometimes ninjas held meetings in hidden mountain caves to plan secret missions." (31)
- "Ninjas took orders from a ninja master. The master was a mysterious wise person who knew many secrets of nature." (31)
- "The samurai were fierce Japanese fighters. Fast shipping Temovate Cream, They carried two swords to cut down their enemies." (45)
This is the most authoritative information Jack and Annie have available, and the vast majority of it is entirely incorrect. Ninja -- the black-suited nemesis of samurai living an independent existence in the hills, etc. -- are a Temovate Cream For Sale, figment of early modern imaginations built on a sliver of truth, reified by modern martial artists' pseudo-historical self-justifications and entertainment industries more than willing to dramatize and amplify the mythologies for fun and profit. (( And, about Temovate Cream, as with most Japanese nouns, the plural of "ninja" is "ninja" not "ninjas" )) The myth of hostility between ninja and samurai, though, Buy Temovate Cream no prescription, runs through a lot of Japanese historical fiction. (( And is almost certainly based on self-serving mythologies of post-pacification samurai )) (38) The idea of the ninja as a kind of eco-warrior seems to be a relatively new addition to the mythology: it's an interesting way of working "harmony with nature" into this Japanese narrative:
"Remember three things," said the master..."Use nature. Be nature. Follow nature." (38)
The nature-ninja turns the samurai into a kind of modernist nightmare, is Temovate Cream addictive. (( The picture on p, Temovate Cream For Sale. 46 is the only time they are depicted visually )) But samurai, described in the book as "fierce," are all bark and no bite: their armor is made of "bamboo" (45), Temovate Cream description, they wander around the woods at night with torches looking for ninja (37, 58), and they can be fooled by a kid in a hoodie pretending to be a rock. (48-49)
In Dragon of the Red Dawn (( Book 37, Scholastic, rx free Temovate Cream, 2007 )) samurai are also a threat, again in a distinctly modernist mode, because of the ban on foreigners. Buy no prescription Temovate Cream online, As their guidebook "A Journey to Old Japan" (7) (( Complete with pseudo-bamboo typography )) says,
- "The late 1600s in Japan were years of peace and prosperity. Art and culture thrived. Temovate Cream For Sale, But it was a time when the country was completely closed to the outside world. No one was allowed to come in. The citizens of Edo were frequently checked to make sure they had passports." (15-16)
- "Anyone who did not have a passport was considered a spy and punished severely." (16)
All samurai, Temovate Cream interactions, in this version of Genroku Japan, are police agents: the only samurai who are mentioned are either former samurai, like the poet Basho, Buy Temovate Cream online no prescription, or some form of patrolling security who are quick to draw their swords and challenge people who are out of place. (21, 42, passim) Basho tells Jack and Annie that "You must remember, seek harmony with your surroundings, my Temovate Cream experience. ... Observe the people of Edo and do as they do, Temovate Cream For Sale. If you do not stand out, you will not be noticed by the samurai." (25-26) Jack and Annie have to learn how to use chopsticks -- while eating makizushi, Temovate Cream natural, which it's a little early for -- under the gaze of samurai who are on the lookout for foreigners. (42) Oddly, the samurai they face suspect them because of where they are but not how they look, whereas Basho can tell immediately that they are foreigners; this may be part of the magic of the tree house, which also gives them appropriate clothing and gear and skips right over language issues, Temovate Cream brand name. (25, etc.) In spite of the fact that Jack and Annie repeatedly come under suspicion of being spies, the samurai questioning them are thrice convinced that they are merely poetry apprentices (22, Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, 48-52, 96-98) who do not need to show their passports, twice by extemporizing poetry. (( including, I regret to inform you, buy generic Temovate Cream, "Twinkle, twinkle, little star." Basho likes it. ))
Temovate Cream For Sale, In addition to their simple duties and simple-mindedness, samurai are part of a very simple political system. Temovate Cream alternatives, As often happens, Osborne has conflated the past and present, Shogunal and Imperial institutions. Here's what "A Journey to Old Japan" says:
- "In the 1600s, the Imperial Garden surrounded the Imperial Palace in the capital city of Japan, Temovate Cream reviews. The city was called Edo (Say EE-doh). In the mid-1800s, its name was changed to Tokyo (Say TOH-kee-oh.)" (14)
- "In the 1600s, Kjøpe Temovate Cream på nett, köpa Temovate Cream online, the military ruler known as the shogun (say SHOW-gun) lived in the center of the Imperial Garden in a palace that had hundreds of rooms." (17)
- "Often the shogun's warriors traveled with him. They were called samurai (Say SAM-uh-rye)." .., Temovate Cream For Sale. "Samurai were excellent horsemen well trained in the arts of fighting. The code of the samurai was strict. Samurai did not show their feelings. They had great powers of concentration." (18)
There's a pronunciation error, taking Temovate Cream, the elimination of daimyo from the political picture, the bushido stoicism and assumption that all samurai are the same, and the confusion engendered by referring to the Shogunal keep by its modern title. Temovate Cream For Sale, Osborne carefully refers to the Shogun as "the military ruler" but doesn't explain the distinction between the Shogunal and Imperial institutions or note that the castle and grounds were not considered "Imperial" until the 1860s. Purchase Temovate Cream,
But the samurai are just an obstacle: the heart of the story is poetry, fire and magic. Despite their failings, Basho admits "Yes, the samurai greatly honor the art of poetry, buying Temovate Cream online over the counter. Poetry helps focus the mind. The samurai believe a truly brave warrior should be able to compose a poem even in the midst of an earthquake, or while facing an enemy on the battlefield." (61) Basho instructs the children in the art of haiku (( though without any of that picky stuff like syllables or turning words, Temovate Cream wiki, or seasonal indicators )) and shares the frog pond verse which he wrote just yesterday, even giving Jack the piece of paper on which the world's most famous haiku is written. (62) The guide book tells us that "Basho is one of Japan's greatest poets, Temovate Cream For Sale. He wrote short, beautiful poems that speak to people as clearly today as they did during the Edo period of Japan." (59) Some of them certainly do: Basho has about the same linguistic issues as Shakespeare, namely that he's one of the writers whose work shaped the early modern language, order Temovate Cream online c.o.d, but idiom and usage have changed over time.
Unlike Night of the Ninjas, this book has a precise historical moment. Temovate Cream forum, Or, rather, several precise moments: the frog poem was written in 1686, but the main action of the book focuses on the fire that destroyed Basho's home in 1682, after which he embarked on his famous travels, buy Temovate Cream online cod. Also, the cherry blossoms are blooming. Temovate Cream For Sale, Aren't they always. Anyway, Canada, mexico, india, on their first walk through the city, Basho notes the drought-like conditions and remembers the 1657 Meireki Fire. (( They also see puppet plays on "a row of stages built along the riverbank" (36) ))
"When the weather is very dry, the people of Edo worry about fire. .., online Temovate Cream without a prescription. Twenty-five years ago, during a dry spell, half our city was destroyed by a terrible fire. Thousands died." (30)
Probably a hundred thousand or more, Temovate Cream For Sale. Temovate Cream long term, But there's an up-side to fires, he says later:
"I suppose that is why the ancients called our fires 'the flowers of Edo.' ... After something is destroyed by fire, a good new thing often takes its place. Just as after the bleakest winter, beautiful flowers return with the spring." (89)
This is not, of course, the actual source of the "flowers of Edo" idiom, which is both relatively recent at that time instead of "ancient", and sarcastic rather than heartening. But Basho himself endured several fires that destroyed his home, and did take the opportunity to travel, producing some of his greatest work (including the above-mentioned poem) as a result.
Temovate Cream For Sale, When the fire breaks out, Jack and Annie join the citizens of Edo fighting the fires - no mention of the competitive firefighting teams, their uniforms or equipment, just people with buckets - and then draw on their magic to invoke the Cloud Dragon, "one of the guardian animals of the four directions. She has the power of flight and commands the rain clouds." (37) Though a very minor figure in Japanese astrology, the Cloud Dragon answers their call with a drenching rain.
There are a few interesting touches: yo-yos, which are a long-standing Japanese toy; hot towels at meals; sumo wrestling as entertainment, though it's unlikely that Genroku-era wrestlers would have been 400+ pounds. (38, 39, 46)
But as educational materials, these books represent a huge step backwards, a terribly wasted opportunity. According to the Wikipedia page, these books have been translated, along with most of the series, into Japanese. I can only imagine what the Japanese thought of them.
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