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President Barack Obama shakes hands and bows with Emperor AkihitoVia my old friend Scott Eric Kaufman I learned that President Obama's visit to Japan was drawing criticism from the American right Buy Epogen Without Prescription, (I also learned that President Eisenhower bowed in public to a number of heads of state) due to Obama's bowed greeting to Emperor Akihito. After Epogen, Most of the commentary (this is an excellent roundup) hinges on whether it's inappropriate for an American Head of State to bow to another Head of State. This is, Epogen no rx, Purchase Epogen online no prescription, of course, why Kaufman was noting Eisenhower's bows, buy Epogen online cod, What is Epogen, none of which were, apparently, Epogen reviews, Epogen no prescription, mutual; other commenters have noted Clinton's bow fifteen years earlier, and Nixon's bow/handshake greeting with Emperor Hirohito, buy Epogen without prescription. Epogen wiki, Some of the criticism is nuanced enough to note that mutual bows are appropriate greetings in Japan, but suggests that Obama's bow was inappropriately deep and therefore servile and inappropriate, online Epogen without a prescription. Epogen without a prescription, Part of the problem in discussing this is the assumption that there is a stable protocol: Japan's modern Imperial institution is younger than the American Republic, and interactions with other heads of state have always been somewhat improvisational, where to buy Epogen. Before the Meiji Restoration, the Emperor didn't meet heads of state, Buy Epogen Without Prescription. Epogen use, For centuries, the Emperor basically met nobody who wasn't a member of the court aristocracy or high officials of the shogunal state: there was no public protocol except for a vague tradition that required the Emperor be above the gaze of anyone, buy Epogen from canada, Where can i order Epogen without prescription, not to be looked down upon. That tradition was revived in the Imperial era, no prescription Epogen online, Epogen for sale, but it wasn't much guidance in dealing with modern crowds, photography, about Epogen, Epogen from canadian pharmacy, diplomatic visits. Even Meiji's coronation ceremony was an innovation, online buying Epogen hcl, Generic Epogen, purged of Chinese elements and enhanced with Shinto rituals. (See Keene, Epogen overnight, Order Epogen online overnight delivery no prescription, ch. Buy Epogen Without Prescription, 18) The first head of state to visit was Hawaiian King Kalakaua, but he was actually preceeded by a visit from former President U.S. Grant who greeted the Emperor with handshakes, cheap Epogen no rx. Epogen from canada, Every time an aristocrat or diplomat met the Emperor, protocol had to be negotiated in advance, Epogen interactions, Order Epogen no prescription, and it shifted over time: when and how much to bow, whether handshakes would be permitted, buy Epogen no prescription, Epogen over the counter, whether foreign women could enter the Emperor's presence with their diplomat husbands, etc, Epogen natural. Epogen duration, But this wasn't yet the great age of state visits: that doesn't come until the 20th century, and the rise of air travel, Epogen coupon. Epogen photos, Before the next America presidential visit with a Japanese emperor, though, where can i cheapest Epogen online, Epogen forum, WWII intervened: the Japanese Emperor was demoted from sacred and inviolable to the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people. More importantly, perhaps, Japan became a neo-colonial extension of American power for a time (when that time ends is a matter of debate, of course) so that Presidential courtesies like Nixon's bow were harmless to American power, Buy Epogen Without Prescription. By the time of Clinton's gesture, order Epogen from United States pharmacy, Purchase Epogen online, though, Japan's economic power was a threat to American dominance (well, australia, uk, us, usa, Epogen from mexico, with the 90s recession, not really, Epogen images, but pundits had spent a good portion of the '80s talking up the Japanese threat, and the impression stuck), and the Imperial transition of 1989 took away the American sense that the Emperor was someone who had been defeated and disarmed. Even Clinton's gesture towards a bow was too much for some, apparently: the very concept of monarchy raised spectres of pre-Revolutionary attitudes, though bowing is not necessarily a subservient act when done between equals (or by a superior) in the Japanese tradition.

Obama's bow is a very formal one -- formality and hierarchy are two different things -- and in the context of a handshake. It doesn't change the nature of the US-Japan relationship as much as the election of Japan's new non-LDP PM, as much as the rising nationalistic culture, as much as the ongoing shifts in the economic relationship between two of the largest -- and most obviously struggling -- economies in the world.

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I just learned of the Japanese Emperor and Empress' visit to Hawai'i [via Cialis For Sale, ]. It's not the first time that a member of the Japanese Imperial family has visited the islands, buy cheap Cialis, Cialis no rx, though you would hardly know it from the gushing "historic" reports of the media. Though this is the first visit by Akihito as Emperor, my Cialis experience, Cialis alternatives, Akihito has visited the islands before, as have other members of Japan's now-symbolic dynasty, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Cialis forum, In addition to the Advertiser's photo gallery, there are some excellent shots on Flickr by "731photo" and "onecardshort", buy no prescription Cialis online, About Cialis, as well as one picture from the US Pacific Command. (( That it's a better shot of the Admiral than of the Emperor is, Cialis steet value, Taking Cialis, I suppose, not surprising, Cialis samples. ))

The continuing connection between the Hawai'i Japanese immigrant community and Japan was a matter of strategic concern from the beginning: The Kingdom of Hawai'i wanted to use Japan as a counterweight against US power; the Republic of Hawai'i used the threat of Japan -- which was actively concerned about the treatment of Japanese in Hawai'i -- to support the annexation of the islands by the US; in the Territorial era, disputes about immigration and about labor organization often involved the Japanese consulate, Cialis For Sale. Purchase Cialis for sale, (( See Gary Okihiro, John Stephan, Cialis natural, Generic Cialis, also Morris-Suzuki )) Yamaguchi Prefecture immigration memorial -FullCentennial And it's also true that the Japanese government considered Japanese emigrants to be an extension of the nation (( see also )) , and tried, Cialis online cod, Cialis blogs, in a fairly blunt fashion, to influence foreign opinion through the overseas communities, purchase Cialis online. Cialis dangers, By the 1910s and 20s, discussion in the media and halls of power of the Hawaiian Japanese community as a potential "fifth column" was pretty common, order Cialis online c.o.d, Is Cialis addictive, and that view was also common on the mainland. It took an immigration ban, Cialis canada, mexico, india, Order Cialis from United States pharmacy, a war, Japan's crushing defeat and entry into the US security system, Cialis mg, Where can i buy Cialis online, and the "blood sacrifice" of Nikkei serving with distinction in the US military to overcome those fears, and transform the Japanese immigrant community and their descendants into simply "ethnic" Americans, Cialis results. Herbal Cialis, So, a little over twenty years past the end of WWII, Cialis pharmacy, Fast shipping Cialis, fifteen past the end of the US occupation, the centennial of Japanese immigration into Hawai'i could be celebrated with public monuments, herbal Cialis, Cialis dangers, publications and events.

This history is why I was so disturbed to read about PRC policy which sees overseas Chinese as intelligence and lobbying agents Cialis For Sale, . There's a reasonable argument to be made -- as Ichioka does -- that Japanese government policy towards emigrants gave support to anti-immigrant attitudes in the US and elsewhere, real brand Cialis online. Cialis images, It's true that other governments treat emigres as resources to some extent, and urge their citizens overseas to represent the nation well, Cialis natural, Cialis price, but the level of coordination, and open encouragement distinguishes pre-war Japanese policy and current PRC policy from the rest of the pack, buy Cialis online no prescription. Cialis pics, I don't think we're on the verge of a "Yellow Peril" panic in the US at this point, but there's no question that this has lead to serious negative consequences for individuals, Cialis photos, What is Cialis, and could lead to wider problems in the future.

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Fauna of Soka - Squirrel standing Buy Flonase Without Prescription, My copanelists on Saturday were political scientists, and it was a good update for me on what what's going on with Japan in the last ten years or so. Buy Flonase online cod, "Normalization" is the name of the game: Japan's political spectrum and international relations are starting to look a lot less like Yoshida's vision and a lot more like a pretty normal regional power.

Keiko Hirata from CSU Northridge looked at the basic divisions between political theories at work in Japan, Flonase interactions. Flonase maximum dosage, Many political scientists have divided them into four groups: pacifist (isolationists), mercantilists (internationalist), Flonase overnight, Where can i order Flonase without prescription, normalists (internationalist) and nationalists (isolationist, sort of), my Flonase experience. Where can i cheapest Flonase online, Yoshida's domestic economic and non-entanglement orientation makes him a mercantilist, but the normalists are the group which seems to be in ascendance at the moment, generic Flonase. Though Hirata didn't talk about this, it seems to me that the nationalists are the group which has made that possible: their extreme views on remilitarization and national identity have made the gradual remilitarization and international engagement of the normalists seem, well, normal, Buy Flonase Without Prescription. Online buying Flonase, (( I was a little surprised that she didn't reference the "Overton Window," but maybe I've been reading too much ScienceBlogs lately, Flonase gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. No prescription Flonase online, )) The most interest aspect of the categories as far as I was concerned is that they have widely disparate views of history: The pacifists, of course, online Flonase without a prescription, Flonase use, emphasize the irresponsibility and horror of WWII; mercantilists emphasize the post-war recovery, seeing the war as a period of national destruction; the normalists take a kind of "dark valley" approach; the nationalists see the early 20th century as a period of healthy growth and cultural pride, Flonase trusted pharmacy reviews. Flonase duration, Gaye Christoffersen, one of Soka's own, Flonase online cod, Flonase no prescription, presented a surprisingly interesting look at the issue of multilateral maritime security. This has become pretty hot lately, buy generic Flonase, Flonase pictures, what with the Somali pirate situation, and the multilateral, kjøpe Flonase på nett, köpa Flonase online, Is Flonase addictive, bottom-up coalition which has been solving the problem out there actually has its roots in the coalition which has taken responsibility for the Malacca Straights. Buy Flonase Without Prescription, There, the US tried to organize a top-down security system, but failed, while China and Japan led a slower, but more successful, bottom-up group. The punch line to this is that Japan's Coast Guard has been spearheading things, taking Flonase, After Flonase, because it isn't bound by the Naval SDF's limitations on the use of force; to equalize things, Japan just last week passed an anti-piracy bill allowing multilateral agreements and the use of force on the high seas, buy Flonase from canada. Buy Flonase no prescription, Normalization continues. China's concerns about Japan's normalization are a big deal still, Flonase brand name, Doses Flonase work, but in multilateral/regional situations, they seem to be able to work together, buy Flonase without prescription. Flonase samples, Hideyuki Sakai talked about "minilateralism," which apparently is a kind of high-level collusion among a few members used to save multilateral agreements and regimes, low dose Flonase. Japan, it seems, excels at these kinds of negotiations, especially on environmental issues, Buy Flonase Without Prescription. Flonase street price, Interestingly, in the next session, Flonase price, coupon, Flonase no rx, Tsuneo Akaha talked about international migration and human security issues, and the problem of protecting migrants, where can i buy Flonase online, Discount Flonase, especially illegal ones, given legal and economic regimes that criminalize but also exploit their presence, Flonase reviews. Flonase coupon, In this case, multi-lateralism is proceeding very slowly, Flonase alternatives, Canada, mexico, india, and Japan's role in the process has not been all that helpful, since it has a very narrow view of migration and migrant rights, cheap Flonase no rx. That's not really news, of course, but it does demonstrate something useful about the direction things might still have to go, and the issues on which "bottom-up" and minilateralism aren't going to be all that effective.

As Tsuneo noted in the discussion period, North Korea was kind of the elephant in the living room through these discussions....

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Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription, "In retrospect, historians are usually right." -- Der Spiegel interviewer (11-11-08).

This has been a lively month for history blogging, for some obvious reasons -- the election, the economic turmoil -- and despite the mid-semester doldrums that often strike this time of year. I will, Is Diclofenac safe, because I can't leave well enough alone, be decorating this carnival with images from my collection. (( collected shamelessly for educational purposes from museums (the Nelson-Atkins in Kansas City), where can i buy cheapest Diclofenac online, parks (Fort Scott, About Diclofenac, Kansas) and private collections (Waikoloa Hilton, Hawai'i). Fair use applies: if you find any of this useful, Diclofenac maximum dosage, feel free to use it as appropriate, Diclofenac from canada, giving credit where credit is due. ))

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Perhaps the first and foremost historical issue on everyone's (well, every pundit's) mind is the question of whether we're in for another Great Depression, Diclofenac dose. (( Sometimes, I'd rather not be right )) This has sparked a great debate about just what the Great Depression really was and how we got out of it: one of the great front-line battlers in this has been Americanist and Depression-expert Eric Rauchway, whose work has been cited by Paul Krugman, among others, Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription. On the other side (( though it's not entirely clear how many "sides" there are here )) , Diclofenac long term, I'd recommend the Liberty & Power bloggers like Steven Horwitz

The election was, indeed, historic -- yes, buy Diclofenac no prescription, I hate that use of the word as much as you do, My Diclofenac experience, but at least it answered some of our questions. For context, Dmitri Minaev provides Russian and Soviet reporting on the 1908 election and 1933 crisis, low dose Diclofenac. Speaking of 1933, Diclofenac no rx, Greg Laden has a cautionary tale about FDR and unguarded statements about presidential preferences. Kristan Tetens gives us a look at the painting behind the phrase "audacity of hope." Speaking of audacity, it's hard to beat the story of the guy who ran for president from prison, Diclofenac gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Eugene Debs.

Another popular discussion has been the new Life Magazine collection hosted by Google Images: you can see examples here, Get Diclofenac, here and here, among others. Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription, Speaking of photographs, one of the advantages of digital collections is that they might be less prone to accidental disposal (( if you do regular backups and use good hosting services. ))

Todaiji guardian reproduction 2Meanwhile, no prescription Diclofenac online, there is a very serious discussion of historical revisionism and resurgent nationalism going on in Japan, Order Diclofenac from United States pharmacy, inspired by the case of Japanese Self Defense Force General Tamogami who published -- with the collusion of a right wing publisher -- an essay arguing for Japan's fundamental innocence in the initiation of World War Two. In addition to being lousy history, it violates the tradition of political neutrality by the post-war Japanese military and supports the idea of a revitalized pre-war nationalism unrestrained by the pacifist constitution or reality, herbal Diclofenac. Roy Berman has been on the case from early on and keeps digging up more great material. Purchase Diclofenac online no prescription, This is, for those of you unfamiliar with the Asian debates, roughly equivalent to the "Lost Cause" Civil War narratives which won't go away, Diclofenac blogs, either. For some good WWII Pacific history, Elementaryhistoryteacher has a detailed discussion of the movie Beach Red and the post-battle history of the Battle of Tawara that inspired it.

Women in Histories

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The election was also noteworthy for the women who were involved -- Hilary Clinton and Sarah Palin as candidates and Michelle Obama as the second First Lady with a law degree -- and there are some serious political women in this month's collection, Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription. Comprar en línea Diclofenac, comprar Diclofenac baratos,

First, two stories of women running for office. Jennie W presents Helen Gahagan Douglas, cheap Diclofenac, who ran against Nixon for a US Senate seat and lost; she presents both pro-Nixon and anti-Nixon recollections of the campaign, Buy generic Diclofenac, which makes for an interesting historiographical exercise. Elizabeth K. Mahon gives us a "scandalous" tale of Presidential candidate Victoria Woodhull, Diclofenac images, who ran a half-century before women won sufferage in this country. Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription, Speaking of scandal, Andrew Amelinckx found a great scam artist. Diclofenac cost,

Perhaps my favorite in this category is Liz Henry's translation of Alfredo Arteaga's anti-feminist poem, because she puts it in the context of Argentinian Feminists in the Early 1900s, so you can see that there was something interesting going on.

Going back a bit, purchase Diclofenac online, this discussion of birth control in Rome is absolutely fascinating, Where can i cheapest Diclofenac online, including a menstruation-inducing herb that was so heavily harvested that it is now extinct. There's a bit of environmental and women's history that didn't make it into my current textbook!

Because China's Big

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Alan Baumler reports on an attempt to create a Virtual Forbidden City for teaching purposes, but it's got limits, Diclofenac forum. Morgan Pitelka visits Second Life to confer with folks exploring new frontiers in New Media and Japanese Studies. Purchase Diclofenac for sale, Chris Bertram, though, meditated on older Chinese technology and the memories and connections it leaves behind, Diclofenac use.

History is very much about the recovery of memory, Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription. Gina, Diclofenac without a prescription, our newest member at Frog in a Well: China, raises interesting questions about lost stories of the Cultural Revolution and how new texts can bring them to life. Going back further, Diclofenac pics, how many of us teaching World or Western history remember to mention that there were Chinese in the Great War. Diclofenac price, Thousands and thousands of them, but it wasn't enough to get Chinese issues a fair hearing afterwards. Shortly after that, doses Diclofenac work, Bertrand Russell visited China and wrote some very perceptive things.

Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription, I know it's not China but.... Taking Diclofenac, John P. DiMoia raises some fascinating issues in the history of science, and nationalism, where can i order Diclofenac without prescription, looking at a cholera outbreak in South Korea in the early days of the US occupation. Buy Diclofenac without a prescription,

The Atlantic Has Two Sides

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There was quite a bit submitted this time around which features trans-Atlantic connections, sometimes unexpectedly. For example, Diclofenac reviews, this photoessay of a New York City park features a park named after a British colonial governor, Rx free Diclofenac, a playground named after an American female entrepreneur, and cobblestones made from ship ballast. This description of procedure in the British House of Commons at the beginning of the previous century notes the degree to which US founders were influenced by British parliamentary practice, Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription.

There was some actual travel, Diclofenac treatment, or at least legends of actual travel: Eliza Knight gives us St. Buy no prescription Diclofenac online, Brendan, the Celtic priest who may have visited North America before even the Vikings. A blog devoted to 300-word historical fiction vignettes offers Charles Lindbergh's immigrant ancestor, Diclofenac interactions.

And in a more verifiable holiday vein, Hari Balasubramanian revisits Thanksgiving in the light of 1491.

He Who Laughs Last

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Fiona Veitch Smith presents Pantomime theatre Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription, , a venerable but evolving British tradition featuring cross-dressing, current events satires and much more.

And, one of my favorite posts of the month, Scott Eric Kaufman presents a slice of comic strip history, Charlie Brown v. Dennis the Menace (also here, with more comments). Why is it one of my favorites. I never liked Dennis the Menace....

Looking Ahead

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That was fun, Buy Diclofenac Without Prescription. Hope the end of your semester is, if not painless, at least crisis-free, and your holidays joyous. The next History Carnival host is Melissa Bellanta at The Vapour Trail. You can submit nominations through The History Carnival website, or with tag or the old page.


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Biaxin For Sale, No, I'm not going to show you some cartoon of a spam musubi or a "remove your shoes" sign. This is, canada, mexico, india, Biaxin pictures, apparently, serious stuff: Educators working with the Hawaiian language revitalization and immersion movements have begun to use Kanji -- and Japanese language generally -- as a teaching tool for the Hawaiian language, where to buy Biaxin. Biaxin online cod, In spite of the fact that this press release came from my own institution, I actually know nothing about this, Biaxin pics. Biaxin samples, It's wild stuff, but it has some very interesting pedagogical and cultural and linguistic foundations, Biaxin dosage. Biaxin from canadian pharmacy, There is a PDF from ‘Aha Pūnana Leo (‘APL) which has a great deal of detail and examples, including the one mentioned in the press release, Biaxin dose.

The core of the program is that both Hawaiian and Japanese are, phonetically speaking, syllabic languages, and that there are a lot of Japanese in Hawai'i, including relatives and ancestors of students in the Hawaiian program, Biaxin For Sale. Biaxin description, The teachers who designed the program, aside from instilling respect, Biaxin price, Biaxin steet value, understanding and aloha in their students, wanted to use the ideographic characters to emphasize the syllabic nature of Hawaiian, buy Biaxin no prescription, Comprar en línea Biaxin, comprar Biaxin baratos, as opposed to the alphabetic system of Roman letters. After assigning basic characters to each of the forty-five syllables of the Hawaiian language, Biaxin photos, Herbal Biaxin, they went on to teach the students more kanji by meaning, as well as conventional Japanese language instruction, Biaxin duration. Biaxin gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, (( as the press release points out, one of the criticisms of the Hawaiian immersion program is that it seems somewhat limited, Biaxin images, Where can i order Biaxin without prescription, in terms of economic potential after graduation. Japanese, Biaxin mg, Biaxin schedule, of course, is the road to riches, where can i buy Biaxin online. Biaxin For Sale, At least that's what it says in the big print. Biaxin alternatives, ))

I have to admit, it seems like a terribly roundabout way of handling the languages, Biaxin maximum dosage. Biaxin over the counter, There's an interesting historical side note to this, though, Biaxin trusted pharmacy reviews. Biaxin australia, uk, us, usa, As I wrote in my dissertation (( p. 20, is Biaxin safe. The citation is to Hilary Conroy's The Japanese Frontier in Hawai'i, pp, Biaxin For Sale. Real brand Biaxin online, 50-52 )):

Hawaiian King Kalakaua visited Japan in 1881 and made three proposals which, although they were rejected, Biaxin recreational, Cheap Biaxin no rx, endeared the Hawaiian monarch to the Japanese authorities. The offer to revise their treaty to eliminate extra-territoriality was rejected so as not to interfere with similar negotiations with the Great Powers, Biaxin reviews. Buy no prescription Biaxin online, An impulsive offer by King Kalakaua for a marriage alliance between his niece and an Imperial Prince (ages six and fifteen years, respectively) was turned down after a show of due consideration, order Biaxin online overnight delivery no prescription. Buy cheap Biaxin no rx, Finally, a "Union and Federation of Asian Nations and Sovereigns" which would have given Japan a platform to demonstrate leadership and build prestige in the Pacific was rejected as endangering the generally good relationship between Japan and the United States, order Biaxin online c.o.d, Biaxin overnight, which had particularly strong interests in Hawai'i.
Biaxin For Sale, Hawai'i and Japan might have had a much closer relationship, and there might have been even more Japanese influence on the islands than there already is. There is also considerably more influence the other way than most people realize, where can i cheapest Biaxin online. Biaxin price, coupon, There is an extensive Hula halau (school/team) network in Japan, whose members regularly visit Hawai'i to study with local teachers and immerse themselves in the culture. (( one of the best Hula dancers and Hawaiian singers I've seen recently was a Japanese woman who teaches Hula in Japan )) The Japanese government has even promoted the Hawaiian shirt (in its Okinawan form, officially) as a cool answer to the problem of work attire, and there are still lots and lots of Japanese who come to Hawai'i for honeymoons and vacations who could do some good for the economy and ecology of both countries by stocking up.

Sheer geography and the history of Japanese migration to Hawai'i has created an interesting -- and definitely under-studied -- relationship. One that could be shaped anew by a really creative reimagining of language pedagogy. Or it could be a complete dead end.

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The Return of Uwano Ishinosuke

Filed under: — Nick Kapur @ 12:00 pm Print
 Japanese World War II military stragglers are still showing up on the newswires six decades after the end of the conflict. This past week, Japan has been captivated by the return of Uwano Ishinosuke, 83, a former soldier in the Japanese Army who was stranded on Sakhalin Island when the Russians took over, and has been living for the past 50 years in the Ukraine with his Ukranian wife and family. Speaking only Ukranian and travelling on a Ukranian passport, Uwano visited the graves of his parents and some relatives in Iwate prefecture before returning to the Ukraine.  Having last been sighted in 1958, Uwano's family had had him officially declared as "war dead" and removed from the household register in 2000. Uwano's existence came to light last year after he asked friends in Ukraine to help him contact the Japanese government and was eventually put into contact with the Japanese consulate in Kiev, which arranged his return visit. The Japanese government estimates that there may be as many as 400 Japanese military stragglers still living in the former Soviet Union, although the whereabouts are known for only 40 of them.  In other straggler news, last year reports of former Japanese soldiers living near a remote village in the Philippines caused the Japanese government to sent an official search party, but the soldiers were not found.  For those interested in learning more about Japanese Imperial Army stragglers, there is a pretty decent book on the topic by Beatrice Trefalt: Japanese Army Stragglers and Memories of the War in Japan, 1950-1975. Unfortunately it is published by RoutledgeCurzon and is therefore prohibitively expensive, so a university library may be the best place to get it.



皆さん、はじめまして。斉川貴嗣(Saikawa Takashi)と申します。 ずいぶん前にローソンさんからこのブログへお誘いいただいていたのですが、ここ1、2ヶ月忙しくしておりましたので書き込みが遅れました。これからは積極的に参加していきたいと思いますので、どうぞよろしくお願いいたします。 まずは簡単な自己紹介。現在、早稲田大学大学院政治学研究科の学生(博士課程)です。専門は国際関係論なのですが、理論研究ではなく歴史研究を行なっています。具体的には、両大戦間期に活動を展開した知的協力国際委員会(International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation)を研究対象としています。この委員会は、1922年に国際連盟の一機関として設立され、当時の世界的な知識人が数多く参加しました。教育交流、文化交流など現在で言えば国際交流を実践した機関で、その理念や活動は今のユネスコに継承されています。私としては、この委員会に非西洋諸国の知識人や政府がどのように関わったのかということに興味があり、特に当時の日本と中国の関与を調べています。日本では新渡戸稲造、田中館愛橘、姉崎正治、中国では呉稚暉、林語堂などの知識人が関わっていて、これら人々の思想研究も行なうつもりです。先月から今月にかけて4週間ほど、ジュネーブの国際連盟アーカイブスに研究調査に行ってきました。結構面白い史料が見つかりましたので、早いうちに何らかのかたちで成果を示すことができればと考えています。 というわけで、私は決して日本史のプロパーではないのですが、皆さんからいろいろ勉強させていただいて、また私が皆さんのお役に立つことがあれば幸いです。



I think we need a new word for the study of colonialism, imperialism and the post-colonial discourses, pro and con. Pro? Who's in favor of it? Well, this is what makes it interesting, these days: there are a lot of former colonial powers out there whose citizens and leaders, in their heart of hearts, still believe that they accomplished something that was ultimately positive, who still believe that their developmental initiatives and their anti-communist (or anti-capitalist) positions were justified by subsequent developments. This is usually -- explicitly or implicitly -- intended to mitigate or cancel out any discussions of political repression, economic exploitation, military atrocities or strategic abandonment. Sometimes it's just good historical sense, but then it usually comes with very careful caveats about not canceling out the other stuff.

In the former category, we have Japan's second-best known conservative speaking out

[Japanese Foreign Minister Taro] Aso said that ''thanks to the significant improvement in educational standards and literacy'' during Japan's colonial rule, ''Taiwan is now a country with a very high education level and keeps up with the current era.'' ''This is something I was told by an important figure in Taiwan and all the elderly people knew about it,'' he said, according to Kyodo News. ''That was a time when I felt that, as expected, our predecessors did a good thing.''

There's been real research done on things like education and colonial legacies, but Aso is basing his conclusions on "something I was told" and a somewhat panglossian view of early 20th century Japanese leaders. Aso is not trying to present a nuanced historical revision; he's something of a flamethower, politically speaking. Another in a long line of Japanese politicians who is playing to the home audience; this time, though, unlike some of the '80s and '90s gaffes where foreign press turned off-the-cuff statements into scandals, I'm quite sure that he's counting on foreign reaction to emphasize Japan's international isolation and historical victimhood.

For a more nuanced discussion, though Prasenjit Duara's Japan Focus article condenses down some of his recent scholarship and argues that Manchukuo was a "post-colonial" state because it was formally autonomous instead of being a traditional colony. He calls this "New Imperialism" (though I thought the late 19c "scramble for Africa" and Chinese treaty ports was the "new" imperialism; hint: never name something "new" because it won't be for long), defined as "imperialism without colonialism" practiced by the US and USSR as well as Japan in the early 20th century. Some of the hallmarks of New Imperialism are the lack of colonial integration, the use of anti-imperialist rhetorical justifications, and the use of some kind of theory of solidarity binding formally autonomous states together into a community of strategic interest.

It's not a bad definition, but Manchukuo, it seems to me, is a weak example and highlights the difficulty of defining "autonomous" and "state" in meaningful ways. But Duara tries to make a case for Manchukuo as a pretty solidly modern (in concept, anyway) nation-state, and as such a sign that Japanese imperialism produced a modernization effect. Duara is not, in any way, whitewashing aspects of imperialism such as political repression or economic exploitation, but rather pointing out that the instrumental nature of imperialism often required that the imperial subject state be developed -- institutionally and economically -- to the point of being useful to its dominating power. This strikes me as interesting, but not terribly different from World Systems Theory concepts of peripheries and development under dependency.

There's lots of places where Duara's argument doesn't entirely ring true to me. To take one example, he cites Manchukuo's creation as an independent state instead of a colony as a result of intellectual trends and imperialist theories within Japan and the rhetorical structure (Confucian) of pan-Asianism, and seems to ignore the tactical issue: Japan was trying, initially, to get the world to ignore the fact that Manchukuo was a colony, however formally administered. It's interesting to see how the rhetoric fits the situation, but I'm not convinced that the rhetoric shaped the situation so much as the reverse.

Duara is also arguing for an historiographical continuity between pre-WWII and post-WWII imperial networks, which certainly rings true, at least to my World Systems Theory influenced view of imperialism. I never thought that the distinction between "colony", "puppet regime", "client state", and "peripheral economy" was clear lines or, for that matter, all that important in tracing influence; it's the direction and scale of power, which is a continuum, that matters, and the distinction between Imperialism With Colonialism and Imperialism Without Colonialism doesn't really seem all that important to me if there isn't a real difference in effect.



Iriye: Two Postwars: 1905 and 1945

Filed under: — K. M. Lawson @ 5:49 pm Print
Professor Akira Iriye gave a talk at the Reischauer Institute yesterday which, like most Japan Forum events, was open to the public. Iriye has been attending various conferences in this year of dual anniversaries for the end of the Russo-Japanese war and World War II and has been collecting impressions and insights that he shared with the audience yesterday. He divided his comments by looking at the two postwars from the perspective of the individual, its impact on the region, and broadly in terms of 20th century history. On the individual level he focused on the experience of Asakawa, Kan'ichi (1873-1948), who like Iriye, was a professor in the United States, and spent over 50 years in the United States. Apparently, as of this year, Iriye will have been in the country longer than Asakawa. Iriye contrasted the experience of Asakawa, who found himself frequently in an awkward position of having to balance and moderate between often extreme opinions on the Japanese and US side, with his own life in the United States, which he says shared none of these difficulties. In what was perhaps the most interested aspect of the talk Iriye discussed his own diary, which he started August 19, 1945, only days after the end of the war. At the time, he notes, he was apparently moderately nationalistic and felt awful about Japan's defeat (his entries until the 26th, however, were dominated by discussion of how he managed to obtain food for that day). He posed an open question to the audience about how one makes a transition from such nationalistic views to a more internationalist perspective. He made such a change himself, describing himself now as anti-nationalist and internationalist, and suggests that in his particular case it was the cosmopolitan atmosphere at American universities and the American education system which is to credit for this change. He says that however critical he may be of the United States now, this has not changed. Later in his talk, when he made some comments on the implications for the broader 20th century Iriye made some bold predictions about the future, as he has made in previous talks and writings. If 1905 represents the true entry of Japan onto the world stage as a world power and empire, and 1945 represents the shift from a world dominated by empires to one dominated by the nation-state, Iriye sees the current trends towards an age of regional institutional forces, and especially, non-state "transnational" actors. He is strong about this claim, and believes it is "foolish" to believe that the nation-state can continue to be the primary force in the coming century. He is especially hopeful about developments towards a regional community in Asia. Finally, Iriye noted that Japanese opinion about the two wars has always been divided, and generally fall into two camps: those who celebrate the Russo-Japanese war and lament the defeat in 1945, and those who hold the reverse position. Iriye places himself firmly in the latter camp, believing that the 1905 was "disastrous" because it led to Japanese hegemony in Korea and China. In this respect, he seems critical of approaches that view, in his words, the conflict as a "war of civilizations." As for 1945, Iriye argues that Japan's defeat had the effect of forcing Japan to relate to the world in terms of economics, culture, etc. thus positioning it well to face the challenges of the future.


Hitler Watch: Koizumi

Is Koizuimi Junichiro another Hitler? One former LDP'er thinks so, and Chinese academician Feng Zhaokui agrees [via]:
Feng's FearHistory
They both occurred after a country, defeated on the battlefield, took steps to wipe away national humiliation and rise againHitler was elected, sort of, fourteen years after the end of WWI, in part on the strength of embittered veterans; Koizumi was re-elected sixty years after the end of WWII, after nearly ever veteran of that war has passed on
In both situations, a country shamed in military defeat felt persecuted, giving rise to politics of emotions, especially with regard to neighboring countries; I don't have any idea what this means with regard to Japan, except that people still bring up WWII on a pretty regular basis, which is embarrasing. I guess that must be it.
In both situations, this "public pathos" was tapped to become an essential element in the political contest for votes, in the suppression of rational politics, and in the push toward a hawkish road; When was the last time you saw an election in which an appeal to "rational politics" succeeded? Seriously, though, Japan's desire to rationalize its relations with its neighbors (in other words, to dominate them economically, instead of feeling guilty) was an element in this election, though far from a central one.
In both situations, a banner of reform was flown and the "ultra-appeal" of a party head was used to encourage voters to elect them; that party leader was a crafty, masterful actor during the electoral process; By that standard, there ought to be a lot more Hitlers running around
Both situations used the dissolution of parliament to give the ruling party an overwhelming majority of seats; This one made me laugh out loud: parliamentary systems always have to dissolve to have elections, even scheduled ones. When you have an election, often somebody wins. And the LDP has had bigger majorities than it does now
They both want to revise the constitution to give their leadership and their successors more power, and to normalize the military by resurrect the nation's army.Japan's military doesn't need "resurrect"ion: it's already one of the most powerful on the planet, in technical terms, and one of the best-funded. Hitler's power came through emergency decrees and something a bit more drastic than constitutional "revision." Koizumi is, so far, sticking to the usual amendment process, and is well aware of the likelihood of failure in the referendum approval stage. Plenty of countries have endured stronger executives than Japan's current Prime Ministers without going fascist.
He missed the part about the Great Depression and the recent stagnation.... [crossposted]

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