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Buy Tramadol Without Prescription, The recent victory of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) in the Lower House, just two years after its surprise victory in the Upper House, is only slightly less exciting than the news that the new First Lady of Japan has traveled, in an out-of-body experience, to the planet Venus. This unusual turn of affairs, low dose Tramadol, Order Tramadol no prescription, predicted by authors such as Edgar Rice Burroughs, H, Tramadol brand name. Tramadol overnight, P. Lovecraft, buy cheap Tramadol no rx, Tramadol natural, Robert Heinlein, C, Tramadol pictures. Tramadol alternatives, S. Lewis, Frederick Pohl, Isaac Asimov, and Paul Anderson, will not, we can only hope, influence Japan's foreign affairs in the years ahead, Buy Tramadol Without Prescription. Critics allege that Hatoyama Miyuki's claim is nothing more than a stunt in which she hopes to attain the high-standing of American political wives like Nancy Reagan, buy no prescription Tramadol online, Tramadol class, who of course is a devout believer in Astrology, order Tramadol from United States pharmacy, Generic Tramadol, or even former president Jimmy Carter, who saw a UFO while Governor of Georgia (pdf), Tramadol australia, uk, us, usa. Tramadol from canadian pharmacy, At the very least she is as "interesting" a figure in politics as Carla Bruni or Sarah Palin. And we shouldn't let her oddities distract us from the very real and significant participation of women politicians in the DPJ strategy of attacking LDP strongholds, Tramadol steet value. Tramadol over the counter, In the end, 54 women won seats in the Lower House, taking Tramadol. Buy Tramadol Without Prescription, The DPJ emerged from the late-night 1998 union, no doubt fueled by many Suntory whiskies, of the Democratic Reform Party, the New Fraternity Party, the Democratic Party, and the Good Governance Party. Buy Tramadol from mexico, (Why didn't they go with the much more compelling English name "The Good Fraternity Party". Now that's a name American politicians could understand.)

The leader of the DPJ in its period of frenetic activity between 2006 and May of 2009  was Ozawa Ichiro, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Tramadol from canada, Elected to the presidency of his party as a reformer, Ozawa was in fact first elected to office as a member of the LDP in 1969, order Tramadol from mexican pharmacy. Tramadol maximum dosage, His mentor was Tanaka Kakuei, who became Prime Minister in 1972 on a wave of overwhelming popularity but then was implicated in numerous scandals within a year of taking office, Tramadol street price. Ozawa survived this crisis and became LDP Secretary General in 1989, Buy Tramadol Without Prescription. Tramadol no rx, As recently as 1999, he was still closely aligned with the leaders of the LDP, purchase Tramadol online. Tramadol duration, This experience proved valuable. More than any member of the DPJ, where can i find Tramadol online, Order Tramadol online c.o.d, Ozawa can be credited with the party's rise, and although he stepped down in May because of allegations of scandal (surprise!), australia, uk, us, usa, Buy cheap Tramadol, he was a central figure in the election strategy that knocked the LDP out of power for just the second time since the 50s, and will likely assume the new post of Secretary General, buying Tramadol online over the counter. Tramadol no prescription, The current leader of the DPJ and the new Prime Minister of Japan (as well as the lucky husband of one of the few women to visit Venus. Buy Tramadol Without Prescription, Venus. Imagine!) is Hatoyama Yukio, online buy Tramadol without a prescription. Tramadol forum, Following in the proud, reformist tradition established by Koizumi Jun'ichiro, Tramadol use, Tramadol used for, Hatoyama has awesome hair. Like many graduates of Stanford University (Ph.D, my Tramadol experience. Tramadol reviews, 1976), Hatoyama comes from humble origins: his great-grandfather was Speaker of the House and President of Waseda University; his grandfather was Prime Minister; his father was Foreign Minister; and his mother is considered to be one of the most influential political donors in Japan. (The family even has an English-language scholarly monograph dedicated to them; it's available on KINDLE!) Hatoyama was only with the LDP for seven years from 1986 to 1993, giving him slightly better credentials as a reformist than Ozawa, Buy Tramadol Without Prescription.

The DPJ has a lot to do. Their new Prime Minister, nicknamed "the Alien" by parliamentary colleagues for his protruding eyes and Stanford-like behavior, needs to answer the question: If women are from Venus, are men in fact from Mars. Will the DPJ adopt an increasingly belligerent tone toward North Korea, Japan's most urgent international threat. Will Hatoyama champion environmental issues despite American recalcitrance. Buy Tramadol Without Prescription, Will the new government revisit the issue of Article 9 in the constitution or spend its valuable political capital on continuing economic recovery instead. And will Japan establish a consulate on the second planet from the sun in the near future.

People inside and outside of Japan are genuinely excited to see if the DPJ will successfully reform the nation's political system, shaped by decades of one-party dominance and widespread corruption. Or will the rule of Hatoyama, like the brief period of coalition rule in the 1990s, be nothing but a fleeting, out-of-body experience.

(Thanks to my former student Mathew Mikuni, a Diplomacy and World Affairs and Asian Studies double major who, in a marvelous 2009 senior thesis, taught me everything I know about the DPJ. Except for the inaccurate, snarky, and hypothetical stuff.).

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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 12:42 am Print

Ton-Chan Doll Lumigan For Sale, Last time I lived in Japan, the LDP lost control of the Diet, and for a year and a half there was a Socialist Prime Minister in charge of an implausible coalition between the Japanese Socialist Party (JSP) and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). The Democratic Party of Japan, Lumigan pharmacy, Online buying Lumigan, which just took control of the lower house of the Diet, was formed in the aftermath of that coalition: the more liberal elements of the LDP combined with the more moderate elements of the JSP, Lumigan photos. Online buying Lumigan hcl, (( This is a rough approximation. The faction politics of the LDP did not neatly divide along ideological lines, buy Lumigan no prescription, Get Lumigan, but some sense of policy alignment was starting to become clearer when the split happened )) This left a more conservative LDP and a more Socialist SDP, and also, Lumigan without prescription, Lumigan wiki, as a side effect, left the LDP again in charge of the government, Lumigan blogs, Lumigan pics, in coalition with the Komeito and other conservative groups. Another side effect: the bushy eyebrows and grandfatherly face of Murayama Tomiichi were immortalized in the "Ton-chan" dolls sold by the JSP; I bought one, Lumigan recreational, Lumigan results, thinking that this might be "historic." (( Actually, I bought two: one for me and one for my parents, Lumigan for sale. ))

You could hardly tell from the news reports coming out of Japan at the moment, Lumigan For Sale. Lumigan over the counter, (( I want to thank Adam Richards for his tireless political blogging during this election, possibly the best reportage in English this time around, Lumigan street price. Lumigan treatment, )) I suppose that I'm not surprised by the lack of respect given to the mid-90s political turmoil: it was inconclusive and sloppy, not the kind of clear-cut "historic" event that makes for banner headlines, doses Lumigan work. About Lumigan, But what came out of it was an LDP that was, honestly, is Lumigan safe, Buy Lumigan without a prescription, destined to fail: instead of representing the middle two-thirds of the Japanese political spectrum, it represented a heavily right-oriented one-third, buy generic Lumigan, Lumigan dose, while the DPJ took a big chunk of what was left. Essentially, low dose Lumigan, Australia, uk, us, usa, the LDP split, probably the natural end to a party that was a coalition to begin with, Lumigan interactions, Where can i buy Lumigan online, formed out of a Cold War fear that Japan's leftist parties might put aside their differences long enough to win control of the Diet. Lumigan For Sale, While it took a few elections, and another decade of disappointing economic stagnation, the left wing of the former LDP has overtaken the right wing of the former LDP, and a former member of the LDP is going to be Prime Minister. (( I don't think anyone's going to make plush toys out of Hatoyama Yukio, where can i buy cheapest Lumigan online, Canada, mexico, india, though he'd make a credible daruma. ))

Is this "historic", ordering Lumigan online. Where to buy Lumigan, Well, it depends, Lumigan no prescription, Purchase Lumigan online no prescription, of course. If the DP turns out to be more or less just like the LDP, Lumigan dosage, Lumigan dangers, then it's no more historic than Pepsi™ overtaking Coca-Cola™. If the DP turns out to be a genuinely center-left party which reduces international entanglements while successfully fostering economic development, Lumigan from mexico, Cheap Lumigan, it could actually be a revival of the Yoshida Doctrine. That might actually be interesting, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, Lumigan recreational, especially since it could mean a shift away from the normalization discourses we've been hearing so much of. I guess it's a bit too soon to write the new narrative, Lumigan pictures. Buy cheap Lumigan.

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Fauna of Soka - Squirrel standing Buy Flonase Without Prescription, My copanelists on Saturday were political scientists, and it was a good update for me on what what's going on with Japan in the last ten years or so. Buy Flonase online cod, "Normalization" is the name of the game: Japan's political spectrum and international relations are starting to look a lot less like Yoshida's vision and a lot more like a pretty normal regional power.

Keiko Hirata from CSU Northridge looked at the basic divisions between political theories at work in Japan, Flonase interactions. Flonase maximum dosage, Many political scientists have divided them into four groups: pacifist (isolationists), mercantilists (internationalist), Flonase overnight, Where can i order Flonase without prescription, normalists (internationalist) and nationalists (isolationist, sort of), my Flonase experience. Where can i cheapest Flonase online, Yoshida's domestic economic and non-entanglement orientation makes him a mercantilist, but the normalists are the group which seems to be in ascendance at the moment, generic Flonase. Though Hirata didn't talk about this, it seems to me that the nationalists are the group which has made that possible: their extreme views on remilitarization and national identity have made the gradual remilitarization and international engagement of the normalists seem, well, normal, Buy Flonase Without Prescription. Online buying Flonase, (( I was a little surprised that she didn't reference the "Overton Window," but maybe I've been reading too much ScienceBlogs lately, Flonase gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. No prescription Flonase online, )) The most interest aspect of the categories as far as I was concerned is that they have widely disparate views of history: The pacifists, of course, online Flonase without a prescription, Flonase use, emphasize the irresponsibility and horror of WWII; mercantilists emphasize the post-war recovery, seeing the war as a period of national destruction; the normalists take a kind of "dark valley" approach; the nationalists see the early 20th century as a period of healthy growth and cultural pride, Flonase trusted pharmacy reviews. Flonase duration, Gaye Christoffersen, one of Soka's own, Flonase online cod, Flonase no prescription, presented a surprisingly interesting look at the issue of multilateral maritime security. This has become pretty hot lately, buy generic Flonase, Flonase pictures, what with the Somali pirate situation, and the multilateral, kjøpe Flonase på nett, köpa Flonase online, Is Flonase addictive, bottom-up coalition which has been solving the problem out there actually has its roots in the coalition which has taken responsibility for the Malacca Straights. Buy Flonase Without Prescription, There, the US tried to organize a top-down security system, but failed, while China and Japan led a slower, but more successful, bottom-up group. The punch line to this is that Japan's Coast Guard has been spearheading things, taking Flonase, After Flonase, because it isn't bound by the Naval SDF's limitations on the use of force; to equalize things, Japan just last week passed an anti-piracy bill allowing multilateral agreements and the use of force on the high seas, buy Flonase from canada. Buy Flonase no prescription, Normalization continues. China's concerns about Japan's normalization are a big deal still, Flonase brand name, Doses Flonase work, but in multilateral/regional situations, they seem to be able to work together, buy Flonase without prescription. Flonase samples, Hideyuki Sakai talked about "minilateralism," which apparently is a kind of high-level collusion among a few members used to save multilateral agreements and regimes, low dose Flonase. Japan, it seems, excels at these kinds of negotiations, especially on environmental issues, Buy Flonase Without Prescription. Flonase street price, Interestingly, in the next session, Flonase price, coupon, Flonase no rx, Tsuneo Akaha talked about international migration and human security issues, and the problem of protecting migrants, where can i buy Flonase online, Discount Flonase, especially illegal ones, given legal and economic regimes that criminalize but also exploit their presence, Flonase reviews. Flonase coupon, In this case, multi-lateralism is proceeding very slowly, Flonase alternatives, Canada, mexico, india, and Japan's role in the process has not been all that helpful, since it has a very narrow view of migration and migrant rights, cheap Flonase no rx. That's not really news, of course, but it does demonstrate something useful about the direction things might still have to go, and the issues on which "bottom-up" and minilateralism aren't going to be all that effective.

As Tsuneo noted in the discussion period, North Korea was kind of the elephant in the living room through these discussions....

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Filed under: — Morgan Pitelka @ 12:28 am Print

Buy Periactin Without Prescription, OK, admittedly I am supremely unqualified to write a post about the current prime ministerial vacancy in Japan. Periactin without a prescription, I'm a historian who works on the 16th century, not an expert in contemporary politics, Periactin pics. Periactin for sale, And many people have their eyes fixed on the Palin-Biden-Clinton-McCain-Obama slugfest. But this story--Manga-obsessed, Periactin samples, Periactin dosage, Stanford- and SOAS-educated, former Olympic skeetshooter, Periactin canada, mexico, india, Periactin reviews, cement CEO, Catholic, Periactin over the counter, Fast shipping Periactin, and regular conservative crazy talker Aso Taro is front runner for the job of Prime Minister--is just too interesting to pass by.

Will the man who made Doraemon Japan's cultural ambassador be king, taking Periactin. Too may politicians have entered the race to be sure at this point, but he is at the head of the pack, having previously aimed for the office three times without success and this time apparently claiming the right mix of experience, LDP credentials, and public popularity, Buy Periactin Without Prescription. Buy Periactin from mexico, Tobias Harris says Aso isn't the right man for the job, if such a figure even exists, where can i buy Periactin online, Where to buy Periactin, but it seems quite likely that he will end up landing the post (in elections to be held in October or November) according to recent coverage in Japanese newspapers.

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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 4:43 pm Print

President Bush cited John Dower Buy Cialis Without Prescription, regarding the potential for post-war democratization. Bush was using Dower's Embracing Defeat to ridicule those who believe the occupation of Iraq is failing to achieve a stable or democratic result by citing those who incorrectly believed that creating a liberal democratic state in Japan after WWII was impossible, purchase Cialis. Fast shipping Cialis, This is a fairly transparent invocation of the "Galileo Gambit," pointing out that people have, Cialis dose, Australia, uk, us, usa, unsurprisingly, sometimes been wrong about things they felt strongly about and that the people who were right have sometimes been in the minority, discount Cialis. Online buying Cialis, It's interesting to see the example of Japan coming up again, as it was very commonly cited in the run-up to the Iraq war, Cialis without a prescription. Cialis pictures, John Dower himself, as the article points out, purchase Cialis for sale, Buy Cialis online no prescription, wrote several articles demolishing the idea that Japan was a good analogy to Iraq in this regard. (( November 2002 and March 2003 )) Dower has also argued that Iraq is like Manchuria (with the US in the role of Japan) and more likely to be a quagmire than a shining example of modernity, generic Cialis. Buy Cialis online cod, (( I've also made the Manchuria analogy, and it still stands up pretty well, buy no prescription Cialis online, Cialis reviews, I'm afraid. )) The Bush Administration immediately disavowed any endorsement of Dower's views outside of the citation made by the President, where to buy Cialis, Order Cialis no prescription, and this kind of historical cherry picking and selective ignorance is all too typical of politicians in general.

It bolsters my complaint from yesterday, Cialis cost, Cialis duration, though: a better understanding of Asian history generally, and of US involvement in it, buy Cialis from mexico, Cialis from mexico, would be all to the good, but so often Asia is just a foil, Cialis without prescription, Cheap Cialis, out of context and interesting only insofar as it affects us. Cialis price, coupon. Buy cheap Cialis no rx. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Cialis interactions. After Cialis. Cialis mg. Doses Cialis work. Cialis street price. Cialis dosage. Cialis from canada. Where can i buy cheapest Cialis online. Cialis pharmacy. Cialis alternatives. Cialis dangers. Taking Cialis. Cialis pics. Purchase Cialis online. Cialis canada, mexico, india.

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Filed under: — Jonathan Dresner @ 6:01 am Print

Buy Accutane Without Prescription, For the conclusion to my ASPAC blogging, I want to talk about the panel which invited me to serve as moderator. Accutane images, It was a pleasure, and not just because three of the four of us were Harvard Ph.D.s., Accutane from mexico, Accutane treatment, though catching up with gossip was fun. The papers covered a solid range of early modern and modern topics -- outcastes in the early 19th century, Accutane natural, Real brand Accutane online, historiography of rebel domains in imperial Japan, political violence in the 1950s -- and was uniformly excellent research which should soon see publication, after Accutane. Accutane price, My introduction tried to tie things together thusly

Marginalizing discourses are, of course, about Accutane, Effects of Accutane, actually intended to normalize. These are not out-groups for the sake of individuality or obtuseness, purchase Accutane, Accutane brand name, but groups trying to function within society, negotiating from positions of weakness, cheap Accutane, Where can i cheapest Accutane online, but using available leverage -- function, ideology, Accutane description, Online buying Accutane hcl, resistance -- which is considered legitimate. But there is a trend away from formal stratification, through uniformity towards equality: modernity shifts from marginalizing people to marginalizing behavior.

Maren Ehlers study of "The Koshirō of Ōno Domain: An Outcast Organization within Domain Society" made a strong case that hinin in small communities were both socially oppressed but also socially useful, and that they could leverage their position into new privileges as the needs of domain society shifted their functions, Buy Accutane Without Prescription. Their status within the community was clearly marked, Accutane mg, Order Accutane from United States pharmacy, but restrictions were often ignored due to the nature of small-town life. She presented a particularly interesting case where the Koshirō were asked to take on duties as executioners in exchange for new privileges (right to wear short swords, Accutane dosage, Accutane pharmacy, plus a stipend), even though those privileges were protested by commoners, Accutane wiki, Accutane cost, but eventually the Koshirō asked to be relieved of those new privileges and the duties that went with them, on the grounds that it lowered their status to be associated with traditional eta work, Accutane pictures. Online Accutane without a prescription, This reinforces the argument Botsman makes in Punishment and Power: that the outcaste groups actively negotiated their status and function, from a weak but not powerless position due to their state functions, order Accutane online overnight delivery no prescription. Buy Accutane online cod, Maren's dissertation is on poverty relief, and ought to add a nice new dimension to our understanding of the functions of government in the Early Modern era, Accutane without prescription.

Buy Accutane Without Prescription, Hiraku Shimoda's "Making and Unmaking a Cautionary Tale: Aizu Domian in Imperial Historical Discourse" was a fascinating look at how partisans of the Shogunal Loyalist domain reshaped the history of the Restoration wars with the collusion of central authorities who wanted to construct a uniform national narrative of Imperial service. Comprar en línea Accutane, comprar Accutane baratos, I was quite taken with the way in which the former rebels were redeemed through a -- largely fanciful and ahistorical -- narrative of a nation in which everyone sought the greater good and were loyal to the same transcendant sovereign, even when they were shooting at each other, Accutane from canadian pharmacy. Order Accutane no prescription, Hiraku's larger work on regional identity will certainly be essential reading for those of us doing local history, and for those of you who haven't yet taken it seriously enough!

Eiko Maruko's chronicled two episodes in "Violence as a Discursive Weapon: Diet Politics in the 1950s" both of which involved Socialist v, online buying Accutane. Accutane pics, LDP clashes. Both parties claimed the mantle of "Defenders of democracy": the LDP claimed that the Socialists were trying to impose a minority will by violence, kjøpe Accutane på nett, köpa Accutane online, Accutane over the counter, invoking the recent past; the Socialists claimed that the LDP were trying to steamroll minorities with an uncompromising majoritarianism which they likened to fascism. The LDP called on security forces (especially in the 1958 case) and successfully cast the Socialists as the aggressors, as an immature group in a maturing democratic society, Buy Accutane Without Prescription. These clashes were, Accutane schedule, Buy generic Accutane, in a sense, precursors to the 1960 Security Treaty conflicts, Accutane long term, Accutane australia, uk, us, usa, but Eiko didn't go into that. Her larger project on political violence from the Bakumatsu to the Ampo Riots ought to be a solid attention-grabber for undergrads, australia, uk, us, usa, Buy Accutane without prescription, as well as adding a very interesting dimension to the whole modernity/democracy discussion. (( I love the way in which it completely ignores conventional periodization, buy Accutane from canada, too. ))

There's so much to look forward to in the next few years, in terms of what we're going to be reading and what we can teach from.


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History Carnival #38

"For both nations and inviduals have sometimes made a virtue of neglecting history; and history has taken its revenge on them." -- H. R. Trevor-Roper "The Past and the Present: History and Sociology" (1969), cited in Tosh, ed. Historians on History, p. 197.

Welcome to the September 1, 2006 edition of history carnival. I'm finally hosting a carnival with a number as high as my age! In honor of the quotes meme making the rounds, I'm going to use my personal quotation file as, um, decoration around the rich collection of material in this carnival. As usual, I'm making up categories as I go along: anyone who treats them as strict or comprehensive cataloging gets what they deserve!

The Earliest

"Chronology, so the saying goes, is the last refuge of the feeble-minded and the only resort for historians." -- Joseph J. Ellis

Geological History (and souvenirs): John McKay recounts a visit to an erratic rock and discusses the geology, the glory of seeing natural history in situ, and the tragedy of souvenir hunters.

Jared Diamond gets another look at Salamander Candy.

Jim Davila at PaleoJudaica takes us on a photographic tour of Vindolanda "an early Roman fort near Hadrian's wall which is important for its Latin epigraphic discoveries. Vindolanda is also the setting for Barabara Bell's Minimus books -- Latin primers for children."

Military Lives

"Historical awareness is a kind of resurrection." -- William Least Heat Moon

Grant Jones presents a WWII hero and Tim Abbott presents his grandfather's story as a US Navy Surgeon in the South Pacific at Walking the Berkshires

Sayaka presents a discussion of the historical documentary ari no heitai [ant soldiers], about Japanese revisionism about the war in China, particularly the post-1945 anti-Communist campaign

Only Two Rs relates a discussion between military historians about soldiers past and present.

Miland Brown explains that "Falling into Aztecs hands in war time was a not a good idea...".

Lively Discourses

"And this is a matter of which no historian can afford to be simply a dispassionate chronicler and analyst. However great his intellectual and moral detachment, in the last resort he is committed to the values, and to the society, that enables him to remain so detached. He is a member of the polis and cannot watch its destruction without himself being destroyed." -- Michael Howard The Lessons of History (1989), cited in Tosh, ed. Historians on History, p. 187.

Brett Holman sent me Dan Todman's A step too Farr? was one of many discussions [Ed. Roundup by Brett Holman] of the proposed posthumous pardon for WWI deserters.

Trillwing's excellent post about one woman in science history at The Clutter Museum included a lament for the paucity of female history bloggers. Ralph Luker responded with a remarkable collection of women history bloggers which spurred much discussion. Here goes: I'm disappointed at the paucity of Asian History Bloggers outside of Frog In A Well....

As Ralph Luker says, "Donald Rumsfeld already has nominations for the next Bad History Carnival from Derek Catsam, Kevin Drum, Hiram Hover, and John Prados." I suspect we'll miss Rumsfeld when he's gone. I'd like to find out.

Orac took some time away from his vacation to strike back at an anti-Darwinist argumentum ad nazium posted at Respectful Insolence. Sergey Romanov also got his licks in, as did a few other folks.

An Artistic Interlude

"Literature is mostly about having sex and not much about having children. Life is the other way around." -- David Lodge, British Museum (1965)

Callimachus reveals his boring old postcard collection. His description, not mine; I'm the one who picked it for the carnival!

Another one I'll admit to: John McKay's brief history of Fantasy and Science Fiction.

word into art 4 at Verbal Privilege is a dramatic demonstration of the power of modern art when it uses historical material and themes (see more here). The final piece in that post is stunning; even if (especially if) you have doubts about politically engaged modern art, look at it.

Brett Holman suggests David Tiley's art, life, terror, the fascinating tale of a women whose artistic talent allowed her to survive the Holocaust and then go on to become a Disney animator, but whose art is being held [that's carefully chosen words, there] by the Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum.

Teaching, teaching, teaching

"A bashful person cannot learn, nor can an impatient one teach." -- Hillel

Dave Fagg's iHistory Podcast Project deserves a serious look for anyone interested in new technology teaching tools.

In honor of the new semester, Alan Baumler and I discuss our history syllabi. This is an ongoing series at Frog In A Well, and we'd love to see more folks join in: there's lots of syllabi on the web, but not a lot of discussion of syllabi content and course organization. There should be more.


"I wonder why we hate the past so." -- W.D. Howells to Mark Twain
"It's so damned humiliating." -- Twain's reply

Scott McLemee suggests YouTube as an Oral History archive. Why not: some scholars already use eBay as a source of manuscripts, etc.

Martin Rundkvist raises a more troubling issue: E-mail migration and the loss of data.

Jennie W. of American Presidents Blog shares some of Lucy Hayes’ Civil War Letters and pictures.

Natalie Bennett's Diarist Lady discusses Touching the King's Evil, in great (historical!) detail.

Kevin Levin's discussion of Ken Burns in the classroom was worthwhile.

Alan Baumler shared a fascinating Han-era document we've both used in class.

Language and history

"If the evidence that existed always spoke plainly, truthfully, and clearly to us, not only would historians have no work to do, we would have no opportunity to argue with each other." -- John H. Arnold, History: A Very Short Introduction, p.13.

How should historical fiction writers deal with archaic terminology? Carla explains her common-sense approach

Amanda McCloskey presents an etymology of biliary atresia, drawing on folklore, comparative linguistics, history and medicine.

Speaking of etymologies, Callimachus does a brief examination of fascism and it's modern applications. Popular topic these days: Shertaugh guest-blogs on it at Eric Muller's place.

Violent Death

"If you want the present to be different from the past, study the past." -- Baruch Spinoza

sepoy sent along Martyrification, a brief history of a woman sniper and her memorial.

Nene Adams is doing a series of crime recapitulations, including a fascinating example of blood libel stymied by forensic pathology and a contemporary of Jack the Ripper.

David Noon presents Nat Turner's Uprising saying, "for professional and personal reasons, my blog has been reduced to a daily recounting of horrific anniversaries -- this entry, I think, is one of the better ones in the series.... It also happens to coincide with the day Bernard Lewis stupidly predicted the world would be cast into a lake of fire...." I can't improve on that.

Scholarly Life

"Education is when you read the fine print. Experience is what you get when you don't." -- Pete Seeger

Ralph Luker shared a piece of his own research, a lovely example of how a simple footnote can be an education if you take it seriously and do it right.

Tim Burke offers a dilemma of historical writing from his own work in You Can’t Tell the Players Without a Scorecard (also here), and discusses the dynamics of the end of Apartheid. Finally, in a challenge answered by far too few (I'll get to it after this carnival is up, really!), he asks about the cleavages and battlefields of our respective subfields.

Finally, Brian Ulrich waxes nostalgic for the "cutting edge" scholars of the past

Politics, of course, means bad history

"At a certain point one ceases to defend a certain view of history; one must defend history itself." -- E. P. Thompson

Konrad Lawson examines George Will's Yasukuni essay and finds it historically lacking. I thought the concluding point comparing Yasukuni visits with the Confederate flag issue was good, though. In related news, Yasukuni's got fiscal issues and PR problems, to boot.

Another Damned Medievalist found Creationist Beowulf, apparently a common element in hard-line Christian homeschooling

Sergey Romanov takes on The Ugly Voice denial videos at Holocaust Controversies. When he's not doing that, he's going up against David Horowitz, whose web projects have featured a hard-core Holocaust denier (and don't miss the George Soros debate, either).

Speaking of the Nazis, apparently some people can't tell the difference between an opportunism and conspiracy. Happens all the time.

Thoroughly Unclassifiable

"Children who tell adults everything are trying to make them as wise as they. Just as children who ask questions already know why the sky is blue and where the lost kitten has gone. What they need is confirmation that the odd and frightening magic which has turned adults into giants has not completely addled their brains." -- Richard Bowes, "The Mask of the Rex."

Mum to Laura guestblogs at Autism Street and attacks pseudoscience by using blindness as a metaphor for autism. It's an interesting exercise in counterfactualism as satire.

Joe Kissell presents a geographic absurdity, a group of islands off of Newfoundland which are French territory. As usual, I have another ITOD post which I think is worth reading, particularly for the mystery.

Until Next Time!

"Not only are there no happy endings, there aren't even any endings." -- Neil Gaiman, American Gods (2001: 483)

In sad news for the Carnival (a minor side effect of momentous happy news in real life), Caleb McDaniel, after hosting HC #37 is going out of blogging on a high note, while he embarks on fatherhood and assistant professorhood. There'll always be space for him in the HC!

That concludes this edition. If you think you can do better, volunteer to host an upcoming edition. Or just submit blog articles to the next edition of history carnival, to be hosted at Cliopatria (Update: The High Cliopatriarch Himself, Ralph Luker, will host!), using our carnival submission form. Past posts and future hosts can be found on our index page or our very own homepage.

"History teaches us that men and nations behave wisely once they have exhausted all other alternatives." -- Abba Eban

Many thanks to those who submitted their own posts, those who submitted other folks' work, and those bloggers who I've shamelessly selected on my own authority.

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Yasukuni: Why the Emperor Stopped Going

Filed under: — K. M. Lawson @ 3:57 am Print
Tomita Tomohiko's MemoThere have been two relatively important Japan history-related news items in the news of late. There have been revelations about US covert funding of Japanese political parties (perhaps more on this in another posting) and separately, evidence has emerged, scooped by Nikkei, to suggest that emperor Showa (Hirohito) stopped going to Yasukuni shrine because of his displeasure at the enshrinement 分祀(ぶんし) of war criminals there in October 1978 as martyrs. There has been a lot of speculation over the years the exact reason he stopped going. I will save my own thoughts on this issue for later but in this posting I just want to assemble some of the material on this available in the news online. Emperor Showa made his last visit to the shrine in November, 1975 after the issue had become more political with prime minister Miki's (三木武夫) visit on August 15th of that year. A former Imperial Household Agency grand steward who served in the position for ten years beginning in 1978, the late Tomita Tomohiki (富田朝彦 d. Nov. 2003), kept a record of statements made by the emperor. (English: Asahi, Mainichi, NYT, Yomiuri I II, III, BBC Japanese: Asahi I, II, III, IV, V, VI, Mainichi: I, II Yomiuri: I, Sankei: I ) In one of Tomita's recorded memos from April 28th, 1988, the emperor is quoted as saying, among other things, that:
"Class-A war criminals have been enshrined. Even Matsuoka and Shiratori (have been enshrined). I've heard that Tsukuba dealt cautiously with the matter, but ..." (Mainichi trans.) 「私は 或(あ)る時に、A級(戦犯)が合祀され その上 松岡、白取(原文のまま)までもが 筑波は慎重に対処してくれたと聞いたが」 "That's why I haven't paid a visit to the shrine since then. That's my belief." (Mainichi) 「だから私あれ以来、参拝していない、それが私の心だ」
The most immediate result of this revelation, if Tomita's quote of the emperor is to be believed and the emperor is telling the truth (some argue that he did not have the freedom to make this sort of decision alone), will be the end of a long-running debate over the emperor's motivation for ending his visits. This news, however, can also have, for better or for worse, an influence on the continued debate over whether prime ministers should visit the shrine. Interestingly, if you embrace the classic positions of anti-shrine and anti-emperor left or the the pro-emperor and pro-shrine right (and there are many more positions one could take), what the emperor said or what his motivation for stopping doesn't necessarily have any bearing on the arguments. That doesn't change the fact that the symbolic and rhetorical value of this issue has already reverberated throughout the Japanese and international media. Political Response: Koizumi - Has declared that visiting the shrine is a "personal decision" and will continue to go. See this Yomiuri article on his response. LDP Party Secretary General Koga Makoto - Is interested in pushing Yasukuni towards removing the war criminals from the shrine. Cabinet Secretary Abe Shinzo (Probable future PM)- Casts doubt on the memo on 20th, suggests emperor Showa had several reasons for ending his visits but otherwise seems uncomfortable with the whole thing by 21st. As seen here: 安倍氏は20日の午前と午後の記者会見で「政府としてコメントすべき立場ではない」などと繰り返すのみ。谷垣財務相も記者団に「天皇陛下がどういうふうにおっしゃったというのを政局と絡めて言うつもりはない」。 Foreign Minister Aso Taro - Has previously indicated that he wants to turn Yasukuni into a state-run facility (and「靖国神社の非宗教法人化」) and has previously suggested that the current emperor should visit the shrine. Tokyo Governor Ishihara - This Mainichi article quotes Ishihara as saying, on the 21st: 「そのお気持ちはよく分かりますね」と語った。自身が今年も靖国神社を参拝することを明言し、「私が戦争の責任者と思っているA級戦犯について祈るつもりは毛頭ない」と語った。 He added his standard take on the trials: 「占領軍が勝手に決めたもので、気の毒な立場の人もいるし、明らかに戦争の責任者もいる」と指摘。戦勝国による東京裁判を「一方的に勝者が敗者を裁く裁判に正当性はないと思う。日本人自身が裁くべきだった」と批判する一方、「裁判に正当性がないと言っても、断罪された人たちに罪がないというのはおかしい」 More on recent political responses in this Yomiuri article. Yasukuni Shrine's Response: The shrine has mostly been responding to suggestions that the war criminals be separated out. As a number of articles have mentioned, the shrine officials have categorically declared that the enshrinement process cannot be reversed and that the government is in no position to pressure the shrine to do anything. Media Responses (May Update in Future): Conservative Yomiuri: Supports state facility for mourning the war dead (国立の戦没者追悼施設建設). Editorial on 21st: "It may be advisable to grant Yasukuni Shrine the freedom to conduct religious activities in a manner that fits its wishes, while exploring alternative options for honoring the war dead. Probable measures include erecting a state-run memorial for the war dead or expanding the government-run cemetery for unidentified fallen soldiers in Tokyo's Chiyoda Ward. We believe considering such alternatives is the only way to resolve the Yasukuni dispute." In the Japanese version of this editorial: 靖国神社には、宗教法人としての自由な宗教活動を認める。他方で、国立追悼施設の建立、あるいは千鳥ヶ淵戦没者墓苑の拡充などの方法を考えていく。「靖国問題」の解決には、そうした選択肢しかないのではないか。」 Right-Wing Nationalist Sankei: Believes that the Tomita memo should not have any influence on the debate on the shrine, and that it has only limited academic value. See their editorial of the 21st: 「富田氏のメモは後者の説を補強する一つの資料といえるが、それは学問的な評価にとどめるべきであり、A級戦犯分祀の是非論に利用すべきではない。まして、首相の靖国参拝をめぐる是非論と安易に結びつけるようなことがあってはなるまい。」Wants Koizumi to not be influenced in the least and continue to go to the shrine as a "representative of the people": 小泉純一郎首相は富田氏のメモに左右されず、国民を代表して堂々と靖国神社に参拝してほしい。」 Scholars, Blogs, and the rest (May Update in future): This Yomiuri article quotes a few responses:
Ikuhiko Hata, a Nippon University lecturer specializing in contemporary history, said: "For many years, I've considered Mr. Tomita as being honest and faithful. I would say that the diaries and memos of his that I've read are highly reliable and recount what the emperor actually said." "Regarding the reasons the emperor stopped visiting the shrine, there has been little evidence from those who were close to the emperor. Therefore, arguments were often premised on speculation. But, the newly discovered memo now provides crucial evidence that Emperor Showa felt displeasure. Future discussions therefore will be made based on this information," Hata said. He added: "Matsudaira, the then chief priest, made the decision to enshrine the Class-A war criminals without obtaining consent from the bereaved families, or confirming the emperor's opinion. The priest should have followed the correct procedures." Prof. Isao Tokoro of Kyoto Sangyo University, specializing in legal history, said, "If we assume that the memo actually records Emperor Showa's remarks, we should examine it very carefully." "For example, it is difficult to assess whether the statement 'even Matsuoka and Shiratori' indicates that the emperor was critical of the enshrinement of Class-A war criminals per se, or displeased over the enshrinement of certain specific war criminals," Tokoro said. "Emperor Showa may have regretted that he authorized the decision to go to war. We should not jump to quick conclusions that he felt such displeasure. Rather, we should reexamine the documents together with the memoirs of late former Grand Chamberlain Yoshihiro Tokugawa, which have already been published," Tokoro added.
-Interesting discussion of the influence of the emperor's statement on public opinion in this blog posting over at 「ぼくら党」の言論ブログ -Yesterday apparently an unlit Molotov coktail was hurled at the headquarters of Nikkei newspaper headquarters, the newspaper which scooped this story. (Japanese: Yomiuri) -Asahi has an article with some responses by various people they interviewed. This Asahi article provides a useful list of the 14 enshrined war criminals at Yasukuni, their political/military positions and sentences/fate after the Tokyo trials: Enshrined War Criminals, the "Showa Martyrs" (昭和殉難者) 【絞首刑】(肩書は戦時、以下同じ) 東条英機(陸軍大将、首相) 板垣征四郎(陸軍大将) 土肥原賢二(陸軍大将) 松井石根(陸軍大将) 木村兵太郎(陸軍大将) 武藤章(陸軍中将) 広田弘毅(首相、外相) 【終身刑、獄死】 平沼騏一郎(首相) 小磯国昭(陸軍大将、首相) 白鳥敏夫(駐イタリア大使) 梅津美治郎(陸軍大将) 【禁固20年、獄死】 東郷茂徳(外相) 【判決前に病死】 松岡洋右(外相) 永野修身(海軍大将) This Mainichi article from the 20th provides a useful little Yasukuni timeline: ◇靖国神社とA級戦犯合祀を巡る動き◇ 1945年8月 終戦の玉音放送 1946年4月 国際検察局がA級戦犯容疑者28人を起訴    6月 松岡洋右被告が病死 1948年11年 極東国際軍事裁判(東京裁判)でA級戦犯のうち7人に絞首刑判決 1951年9月 サンフランシスコ講和条約調印 1956年4月 厚生省(当時)が「祭神名票」送付による合祀事務に対する協力を都道府県に通知 1966年   A級戦犯の「祭神名票」を靖国神社に送付 1975年8月 三木武夫首相が現職首相で初めて終戦記念日に参拝。私人としての「参拝4原則」を強調    11月 昭和天皇が最後の参拝 1978年10月 靖国神社がA級戦犯14人を合祀 1985年8月 中曽根康弘首相が公式参拝。「宗教色を薄めた形式なら公式参拝は合憲」との官房長官談話を受けて 1986年8月 近隣諸国に配慮して中曽根首相が参拝断念 2001年8月 小泉純一郎首相が13日に参拝。以降、毎年参拝 2005年6月 小泉首相が衆院予算委員会でA級戦犯について「戦争犯罪人であると認識している」と答弁  ◇内容を精査し、冷静な分析必要 A closer look at a picture of the passage in Tomita's records from this Asahi article: Memo Picture .


Shades of Mori Arinori

Filed under: — Nick Kapur @ 2:03 am Print
Recently the Japanese Diet has been debating several competing bills to revise the Fundamental Education Law of 1947.  One of the most contested issues is an effort by the LDP to make instilling patriotism an explicit goal of Japan's national education system, as it was under the education system devised by Mori Arinori in the 19th century and in force in Japan up until the US-led education reforms following World War II.  Reportedly, the original language was even stronger, but the LDP-backed bill that finally made it out of committee and onto the Diet floor still contained the relatively strong phrasing by Japanese standards, 我が国と郷土を愛する態度を養う ("to instill an feeling of loving our country and homeland"). Critics of this clause argue that it will promote militarism and inject further tension into already heated Japan-China and Japan-Korea relations, but the LDP-backed bill seems likely to pass largely as is within the next week or so. In related news, it was reported this week that many Japanese schools are grading students on "love of country".  A recent survey in Saitama prefecture found that at least 45 local schools evaluated "love of country" on report cards for 6th-grade students. Under current policy, individual schools are free to decide how report cards are structured and which categories are graded. Officials have argued that the practice is not objectionable because "instilling a feeling of love for one's country" has already been one of the Ministry of Education's stated objectives for 6th-grade social studies students for some time.



I think we need a new word for the study of colonialism, imperialism and the post-colonial discourses, pro and con. Pro? Who's in favor of it? Well, this is what makes it interesting, these days: there are a lot of former colonial powers out there whose citizens and leaders, in their heart of hearts, still believe that they accomplished something that was ultimately positive, who still believe that their developmental initiatives and their anti-communist (or anti-capitalist) positions were justified by subsequent developments. This is usually -- explicitly or implicitly -- intended to mitigate or cancel out any discussions of political repression, economic exploitation, military atrocities or strategic abandonment. Sometimes it's just good historical sense, but then it usually comes with very careful caveats about not canceling out the other stuff.

In the former category, we have Japan's second-best known conservative speaking out

[Japanese Foreign Minister Taro] Aso said that ''thanks to the significant improvement in educational standards and literacy'' during Japan's colonial rule, ''Taiwan is now a country with a very high education level and keeps up with the current era.'' ''This is something I was told by an important figure in Taiwan and all the elderly people knew about it,'' he said, according to Kyodo News. ''That was a time when I felt that, as expected, our predecessors did a good thing.''

There's been real research done on things like education and colonial legacies, but Aso is basing his conclusions on "something I was told" and a somewhat panglossian view of early 20th century Japanese leaders. Aso is not trying to present a nuanced historical revision; he's something of a flamethower, politically speaking. Another in a long line of Japanese politicians who is playing to the home audience; this time, though, unlike some of the '80s and '90s gaffes where foreign press turned off-the-cuff statements into scandals, I'm quite sure that he's counting on foreign reaction to emphasize Japan's international isolation and historical victimhood.

For a more nuanced discussion, though Prasenjit Duara's Japan Focus article condenses down some of his recent scholarship and argues that Manchukuo was a "post-colonial" state because it was formally autonomous instead of being a traditional colony. He calls this "New Imperialism" (though I thought the late 19c "scramble for Africa" and Chinese treaty ports was the "new" imperialism; hint: never name something "new" because it won't be for long), defined as "imperialism without colonialism" practiced by the US and USSR as well as Japan in the early 20th century. Some of the hallmarks of New Imperialism are the lack of colonial integration, the use of anti-imperialist rhetorical justifications, and the use of some kind of theory of solidarity binding formally autonomous states together into a community of strategic interest.

It's not a bad definition, but Manchukuo, it seems to me, is a weak example and highlights the difficulty of defining "autonomous" and "state" in meaningful ways. But Duara tries to make a case for Manchukuo as a pretty solidly modern (in concept, anyway) nation-state, and as such a sign that Japanese imperialism produced a modernization effect. Duara is not, in any way, whitewashing aspects of imperialism such as political repression or economic exploitation, but rather pointing out that the instrumental nature of imperialism often required that the imperial subject state be developed -- institutionally and economically -- to the point of being useful to its dominating power. This strikes me as interesting, but not terribly different from World Systems Theory concepts of peripheries and development under dependency.

There's lots of places where Duara's argument doesn't entirely ring true to me. To take one example, he cites Manchukuo's creation as an independent state instead of a colony as a result of intellectual trends and imperialist theories within Japan and the rhetorical structure (Confucian) of pan-Asianism, and seems to ignore the tactical issue: Japan was trying, initially, to get the world to ignore the fact that Manchukuo was a colony, however formally administered. It's interesting to see how the rhetoric fits the situation, but I'm not convinced that the rhetoric shaped the situation so much as the reverse.

Duara is also arguing for an historiographical continuity between pre-WWII and post-WWII imperial networks, which certainly rings true, at least to my World Systems Theory influenced view of imperialism. I never thought that the distinction between "colony", "puppet regime", "client state", and "peripheral economy" was clear lines or, for that matter, all that important in tracing influence; it's the direction and scale of power, which is a continuum, that matters, and the distinction between Imperialism With Colonialism and Imperialism Without Colonialism doesn't really seem all that important to me if there isn't a real difference in effect.


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